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Rotorua, New Zealand

Murphy G.,Waiariki Institute of Technology | Cown D.,Scion Research
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

There are many log and wood properties of interest to wood processors. There is also high variability in important attributes between and within growing regions and between and within individual stems which influence financial returns to wood processors. This review summarises recent studies of segregation technologies and techniques which have shown that: regional or stand level attribute models will facilitate a coarse level of segregation but not account well for the between and within stem variation; many tools and techniques are available for segregating wood based on internal properties but few have been implemented commercially. Some are better suited for application in mills than in forests; the benefits of segregating stands, stems and logs based on wood properties are not clear due to high variability in wood properties, poor market signals (in terms of price) for wood with superior properties, and poor understanding of the costs across the value chain; and most of the existing economic models tend to look at the economics of segregation from the perspective of a single participant in the value chain, e.g. a structural mill or a central processing yard. Only a few models look across the value chain and these have limitations often poorly representing some participants in the value chain. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Chepulis L.M.,Waiariki Institute of Technology
Journal of complementary & integrative medicine | Year: 2012

The bioactive properties of Manuka honey are now well recognised, but the nature of honey (a sticky, viscous fluid) can make it hard to use as a health remedy. A new technology using encapsulation of Manuka honey with alpha-cyclodextrin molecules has been developed, creating a free-flowing powder that can easily be added to foods and beverages, or tableted / made into capsules for use in health. In this study, we investigated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant capacity of raw Manuka honeys and matched complexes was measured using the CUPRAC method. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of honey decreased when complexed, this being directly related to dilution of the final product with alpha-cyclodextrin. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of neutrophil TNF-alpha secretion. Contradictory results were produced, with both stimulation and inhibition of TNF-alpha being observed. Data from this study indicate that the formation of cyclodextrin-based complexes of Manuka honey may potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of honey, but this may differ depending on methylglyoxal content and the presence of other factors. Source

Chepulis L.M.,Waiariki Institute of Technology | Mearns G.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Nursing Education | Year: 2015

Background: Obesity is prevalent in health care workers, but it is unknown whether a lack of nutritional knowledge contributes to this. This study measured the nutrition knowledge of undergraduate nursing students to identify knowledge gaps that could be addressed through nutrition teaching in an updated undergraduate nursing curriculum. Method: Undergraduate nursing students (N = 197) completed a nutrition knowledge survey with questions on demographics, body composition, nutrition labels, food packaging claims, and healthy food-purchasing choices. Results: Mean overall nutritional knowledge scores were low, but overall scores were higher for students who had received nutrition teaching (60.5% versus 52.5%; F[1, 187] = 7.2, p < 0.001). Improvements in nutrition knowledge were consistent across all ethnic groups, and no effects of age were observed. Conclusion: To sufficiently prepare nurses for their public health role in obesity prevention, more nutrition education is needed in undergraduate nursing education programs, with emphasis on ethnic-specific educational requirements. © SLACK Incorporated. Source

Murphy G.,Waiariki Institute of Technology | Cown D.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science | Year: 2015

Background: Many studies have been carried out to quantify the wood properties of radiata pine, but few have explicitly looked at quantifying radiata pine bark. Bark is of increasing interest for many reasons, e.g. energy source, potential source of bioproducts, log handling methods and costs, and phytosanitary methods. Methods: Over-bark and under-bark diameter measurements recorded from over 1000 discs taken from fixed heights in 150 trees were used to estimate bark volume percentages. The mature trees were from a single seed source and had been planted at 17 sites throughout New Zealand. Bark volume percentages were converted to bark weight percentages using data from 390 trees from the central North Island of New Zealand. Results and conclusions: This study confirmed earlier research that bark accounts for 12 to 13 % of over-bark volume and 7 to 8 % of over-bark green weight for mature radiata pine boles prior to felling and log handling. It also showed that bark volume percent varied with location in a stem, tree size, and site (mean annual temperature). © 2015, Murphy and Cown. Source

Hulme S.R.,University of Otago | Jones O.D.,University of Otago | Raymond C.R.,Waiariki Institute of Technology | Sah P.,University of Queensland | Abraham W.C.,University of Otago
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Synaptic plasticity is fundamental to the neural processes underlying learning and memory. Interestingly, synaptic plasticity itself can be dynamically regulated by prior activity, in a process termed 'metaplasticity', which can be expressed both homosynaptically and heterosynaptically. Here, we focus on heterosynaptic metaplasticity, particularly long-range interactions between synapses spread across dendritic compartments, and review evidence for intracellular versus intercellular signalling pathways leading to this effect. Of particular interest is our previously reported finding that priming stimulation in stratum oriens of area CA1 in the hippocampal slice heterosynaptically inhibits subsequent long-term potentiation and facilitates long-term depression in stratum radiatum. As we have excluded the most likely intracellular signalling pathways that might mediate this long-range heterosynaptic effect, we consider the hypothesis that intercellular communication may be critically involved. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that extracellular ATP hydrolysis, and activation of adenosine A2 receptors are required to induce the metaplastic state. Moreover, delivery of the priming stimulation in stratum oriens elicited astrocytic calcium responses in stratum radiatum. Both the astrocytic responses and the metaplasticity were blocked by gap junction inhibitors. Taken together, these findings support a novel intercellular communication system, possibly involving astrocytes, being required for this type of heterosynaptic metaplasticity. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

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