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Bury M.,Free University of Colombia | Girault A.,University of Tours | Megalizzi V.,Free University of Colombia | Spiegl-Kreinecker S.,Landesnervenklinik Wagner Jauregg Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and common malignant human brain tumor. The intrinsic resistance of highly invasive GBM cells to radiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis accounts for the generally dismal treatment outcomes. This study investigated ophiobolin A (OP-A), a fungal metabolite from Bipolaris species, for its promising anticancer activity against human GBM cells exhibiting varying degrees of resistance to proapoptotic stimuli. We found that OP-A induced marked changes in the dynamic organization of the F-actin cytoskeleton, and inhibited the proliferation and migration of GBM cells, likely by inhibiting big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) channel activity. Moreover, our results indicated that OP-A induced paraptosis-like cell death in GBM cells, which correlated with the vacuolization, possibly brought about by the swelling and fusion of mitochondria and/or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, the OP-A-induced cell death did not involve the activation of caspases. We also showed that the expression of BKCa channels colocalized with these two organelles (mitochondria and ER) was affected in this programmed cell death pathway. Thus, this study reveals a novel mechanism of action associated with the anticancer effects of OP-A, which involves the induction of paraptosis through the disruption of internal potassium ion homeostasis. Our findings offer a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome the intrinsic resistance of GBM cells to proapoptotic stimuli. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Sonvilla G.,Medical University of Vienna | Allerstorfer S.,Medical University of Vienna | Heinzle C.,Medical University of Vienna | Stattner S.,Social Medical Center South | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background:Deregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is involved in several malignancies. Its role in colorectal cancer has not been assessed before.Methods:Expression of FGFR3 in human colorectal tumour specimens was analysed using splice variant-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays. To analyse the impact of FGFR3-IIIc expression on tumour cell biology, colon cancer cell models overexpressing wild-type (WT-3b and WT3c) or dominant-negative FGFR3 variants (KD3c and KD3b) were generated by either plasmid transfection or adenoviral transduction.Results:Although FGFR3 mRNA expression is downregulated in colorectal cancer, alterations mainly affected the FGFR3-IIIb splice variant, resulting in an increased IIIc/IIIb ratio predominantly in a subgroup of advanced tumours. Overexpression of WT3c increased proliferation, survival and colony formation in all colon cancer cell models tested, whereas WT3b had little activity. In addition, it conferred sensitivity to autocrine FGF18-mediated growth and migration signals in SW480 cells with low endogenous FGFR3-IIIc expression. Disruption of FGFR3-IIIc-dependent signalling by dominant-negative FGFR3-IIIc or small interfering RNA-mediated FGFR3-IIIc knockdown resulted in inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis, which could not be observed when FGFR3-IIIb was blocked. In addition, KD3c expression blocked colony formation and migration and distinctly attenuated tumour growth in SCID mouse xenograft models.Conclusion:Our data show that FGFR3-IIIc exerts oncogenic functions by mediating FGF18 effects in colorectal cancer and may constitute a promising new target for therapeutic interventions. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Mathieu V.,Free University of Colombia | Pirker C.,Medical University of Vienna | Schmidt W.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Spiegl-Kreinecker S.,Landesnervenklinik Wagner Jauregg Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2012

Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by distinct biological subtypes. Besides frequent mutations in growth- and survival-promoting genes like BRAF and NRAS, melanomas additionally harbor complex non-random genomic alterations. Using an integrative approach, we have analysed genomic and gene expression changes in human melanoma cell lines (N=32) derived from primary tumors and various metastatic sites and investigated the relation to local growth aggressiveness as xenografts in immuno-compromised mice (N=22). Although the vast majority (>90%) of melanoma models harbored mutations in either BRAF or NRAS, significant differences in subcutaneous growth aggressiveness became obvious. Unsupervised clustering revealed that genomic alterations rather than gene expression data reflected this aggressive phenotype, while no association with histology, stage or metastatic site of the original melanoma was found. Genomic clustering allowed separation of melanoma models into two subgroups with differing local growth aggressiveness in vivo. Regarding genes expressed at significantly altered levels between these subgroups, a surprising correlation with the respective gene doses (>85% accordance) was found. Genes deregulated at the DNA and mRNA level included well-known cancer genes partly already linked to melanoma (RAS genes, PTEN, AURKA, MAPK inhibitors Sprouty/Spred), but also novel candidates like SIPA1 (a Rap1GAP). Pathway mining further supported deregulation of Rap1 signaling in the aggressive subgroup e.g. by additional repression of two Rap1GEFs. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of SIPA1 exerted significant effects on clonogenicity, adherence and migration in aggressive melanoma models. Together our data suggest that an aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation drives local aggressiveness in human melanoma. © Mathieu et al.

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