Poshiwa X.,University of Zimbabwe |
Poshiwa X.,WageningenUniversity |
Groeneveld R.A.,WageningenUniversity |
Heitkonig I.M.A.,WageningenUniversity |
And 2 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2013
Annual rural incomes in Southern Africa show large rainfall-induced fluctuations. Variable rainfall has serious implications for agro-pastoral activities (crop cultivation and livestock keeping), whereas wildlife and tourism are less affected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of wildlife income in reducing rainfall-induced fluctuations in households' annual incomes. We analyse costs and benefits from agro-pastoral systems in southeastern Zimbabwe by means of a two-tier longitudinal survey and wildlife benefits through analysis of wildlife revenues. We use the portfolio theory framework to investigate whether wildlife conservation has the potential for farmers to reduce risk associated with agricultural production. Results show that even though wildlife income is small, it tends to be less volatile than income from the agro-pastoral system. Furthermore, the addition of wildlife as an asset to the rural farmers' portfolio of assets showed that wildlife can be used as a hedge asset to offset risk from agricultural production without compromising on return. The potential of diversification using wildlife is, however, limited since agriculture and wildlife assets are positively correlated. We conclude that revenues from wildlife have some potential to reduce annual household income fluctuations, but only to a limited extent. We argue that if wildlife is organised on a more commercial basis, a more substantial role can be played by wildlife income in reducing variations in rural households' incomes. © X. Poshiwa, R.A. Groeneveld, I. M.A. Heitkönig, H.H.T. Prins and E. C. van Ierland. © X. Poshiwa, R.A. Groeneveld, I. M.A. Heitkönig, H.H.T. Prins and E. C. van Ierland.
Nederlof R.,WageningenUniversity |
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2012
The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks. © 2012 The Royal Society.