Plant Breeding Wageningen UR

Wageningen, Netherlands

Plant Breeding Wageningen UR

Wageningen, Netherlands

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Iezzoni A.,Michigan State University | Weebadde C.,Michigan State University | Luby J.,University of Minnesota | Yue C.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST libraries, genetic and physical maps, QTLs, and whole genome sequences. The potential of genomics approaches to enhance crop improvement, particularly through marker-assisted breeding (MAB), is enormous, but unfulfilled. The U.S. Rosaceae genomics, genetics, and breeding community, with strong international involvement, has united behind the goal of translational genomics and collaborated on the development of large-scale USDA grant proposals. RosBREED, funded for four years from September 2009, incorporates eight teams (Breeding, Socio- Economics, Pedigree-Based Analysis, Breeding Information Management System, Genomics, Genotyping, MAB Pipeline, and Extension) in a transdisciplinary framework that involves significant educational and outreach activities and stakeholder participation. Objectives are to (1) enhance the likelihood of new cultivar adoption, enlarge market potential, and increase consumption of Rosaceae fruits with socio-economics knowledge objectively used in breeding decisions; (2) establish a sustainable technical infrastructure for an efficient MAB Pipeline in Rosaceae; (3) integrate breeding and genomics resources with a standardized breeding information management system incorporating Pedigree-Based Analysis; (4) implement MAB in core RosBREED breeding programs with a common focus on fruit quality traits; and (5) enhance sustainability of cultivar development with MAB technology transfer to current and future U.S. Rosaceae breeders and engagement of key stakeholder groups. Coordinated action is now required to make RosBREED a reality and fulfill the promise of genomics.


King A.J.,University of York | Montes L.R.,Biocombustibles de Guatemala | Clarke J.G.,University of York | Affleck J.,University of York | And 10 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2013

Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring 'nontoxic' provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F2 plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties. © 2013 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Mariot R.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | De Oliveira L.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Voorhuijzen M.M.,Wageningen University | Staats M.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Before commercial release, new potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties must be evaluated for content of toxic compounds such as glycoalkaloids (GAs), which are potent poisons. GA biosynthesis proceeds via the cholesterol pathway to α-chaconine and α-solanine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content and the expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. TGA content was measured by HPLC-MS, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes. We searched for cis-elements of the transcription start site using the PlantPAN database. There was a relationship between TGA content and the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. Putative promoter regions showed the presence of several cis-elements related to biotic and abiotic stresses and light. These findings provide an important step toward understanding TGA regulation and variation in potato tubers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

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