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Gilissen L.J.W.J.,Plant Research International | Van der Meer I.M.,Plant Research International | Smulders M.J.M.,Wageningen UR Plant Breeding
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2014

This paper reviews studies on allergy, intolerance and sensitivity to cereals, especially to wheat, barley, rye, maize, rice and oats with regard to reducing their incidences. Prevalence of allergy to cereals is generally low; prevalence of other cereal-related diseases are highest for wheat and lowest for oats. Compared to the other cereals, wheat (and its components wheat starch and vital gluten) are most abundantly applied in a broad range of food products world-wide, which justifies the major focus of this review on wheat. Current knowledge on diagnosis of the cereal-related diseases and on detection and characterization of the relevant proteins is discussed in the context of the development of prevention strategies. Aiming at their design and implementation, such strategies require building of knowledge frameworks at the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention levels. In this regard, selection and breeding of low-allergenic/low-intoleragenic crop varieties, application of processing and technological approaches, and the introduction of alternative safe cereal crops is discussed. Sustainable reduction of immune-related diseases in general (including cereal allergies and intolerances) is discussed with regard to eating habits and lifestyle factors, human genetic and physiological characteristics, and the role of the intestinal micro-flora. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


De Riek J.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | De Cock K.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Smulders M.J.M.,Wageningen UR Plant Breeding | Nybom H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Within the genus Rosa numerous species have been described. Circumscription of the dogrose section Caninae is straightforward, but the delineation of species and subsections within this section is less clear, partly due to hybridisation between species. We have investigated the extent to which DNA marker-based information of wild populations corroborates present-day dogrose taxonomy and hypotheses about the origination of taxa. Sampling was conducted in a transect across Europe, collecting over 900 specimens of all encountered dogrose taxa. For comparison, we also included more than 200 samples of species belonging to other sections. Two lines of statistical analyses were used to investigate the genetic structure based on AFLP data: (1) an unstructured model with principal coordinate analysis and hierarchical clustering, and (2) a model with a superimposed taxonomic structure based on analysis of genetic diversity using a novel approach combining assignment tests with canonical discriminant analysis. Support was found for five of the seven subsections, whereas R. balsamica apparently belongs to subsection Caninae thus omitting the need for recognising subsection Tomentellae. For R. stylosa, a hybridogenic origin with a non-dogrose section member has been suggested, and it can be treated either as a separate subsection or within subsection Caninae. Within the subsection Rubigineae, a species cluster with low support for the taxa R. micrantha, R. rubiginosa and the putatively hybridogenous R. gremlii was identified. Similarly, several species in the subsection Caninae overlapped considerably, and are best regarded as one common species complex. This population genetic approach provides a general method to validate the taxonomic system in complex and polyploid taxa. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


De Klerk G.-J.,Wageningen UR Plant Breeding
Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Conventional propagation of bulbous crops must be supplemented with micropropagation to satisfy the requirements of present-day horticulture with respect to fast production of disease-free, superior starting material. Adequate micropropagation protocols for bulbous crops are therefore a sine qua non. The successive steps in micropropagation of bulbous crops are reviewed: initiation, multiplication, bulb formation, dormancy breaking and planting. In the first two steps, new shoots or bulblets are generated by axillary bud outgrowth or adventitious regeneration. During initiation, endogenous contamination may be a severe problem since bulbs grow subterraneously and have often been propagated vegetatively in the field for many years. Other drawbacks are insufficient axillary branching, poor adventitious regeneration and inferior growth. The latter, inferior growth, is likely the most significant problem and is caused by poor translocation of medium ingredients to the growing regions within the explant. In micropropagation of bulbous crops, bulblets should be produced because of, among others, easy handling and acclimatization. For optimal performance after planting in soil, preparatory treatments are required in particular a dormancy breaking treatment. A phase-change from juvenile to adult and protective pretreatments are also profitable. It is concluded that when major problems like that of inferior growth have been solved, commercial micropropagation of bulbous crops will experience a second heyday.


Jacobsen E.,Wageningen UR Plant Breeding
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Plant breeding is a multidisciplinary scientific activity with tool development as driving force. It is clear from history that availability of genetic variation and selection methods are bottom lines for variety development. The genetic source of traditional plant breeding is restricted to domestication of traits from the so-called 'breeders' gene pool', consisting of crossable sources. Gene cloning and genetic transformation broaden the available genetic variation to genes from all living organisms. The so-called new genes in genetically modified organism (GMO) plants, consist of transgenes, with (chimaeric) genes from outside the 'breeder's gene pool'. Transgenic plants needed additional biosafety rules such as Directive 2001/18EC. However, these are not needed after transformation of the four rol-genes from wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes. In the meantime, cloned cisgenes, natural dominant genes from 'breeders' gene pool', are available, enabling cisgenic crops after marker-free transformation, which extends plant breeding with traditional traits. From long-term experience, it is clear that traditional breeding with the 'breeders' gene pool' has a history of safe use. Different scientific committees concluded that cisgenic crops are as safe as traditionally bred varieties. So, cisgenesis is a powerful new tool for plant breeding with traditional traits as indicated in the potential examples on: (1) breeding for durable resistance to potato late blight and apple scab by R-gene stacking; (2) the new possibility to come to stacking of monogenic resistance alleles in wheat; (3) engineering of restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility by cloned restorer genes and of altering gametophytic incompatibility by introducing additional S-alleles; (4) increasing phytase activity by gene dosage effect in barley; and (5) the possibility of changing hormone metabolism in (fruit) trees leading to important morphological alterations. In near future, because of availability of many more cisgenes, it is expected that the possibilities of cisgenesis will increase rapidly as the next step in plant breeding with traditional traits, if treatment as non-GMO is approved. © CAB International 2013 (Online ISSN 1749-8848).


Saunders D.G.O.,Norwich Research Park | Breen S.,James Hutton Institute | Win J.,Norwich Research Park | Schornack S.,Norwich Research Park | And 7 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to modulate plant immunity and promote host colonization. Plant nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immunoreceptors recognize specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly. Little is known about how NB-LRR proteins recognize effectors of filamentous plant pathogens, such as Phytophthora infestans. AVR2 belongs to a family of 13 sequence-divergent P. infestans RXLR effectors that are differentially recognized by members of the R2 NB-LRR family in Solanum demissum. We report that the putative plant phosphatase BSU-LIKE PROTEIN1 (BSL1) is required for R2-mediated perception of AVR2 and resistance to P. infestans. AVR2 associates with BSL1 and mediates the interaction of BSL1 with R2 in planta, possibly through the formation of a ternary complex. Strains of P. infestans that are virulent on R2 potatoes express an unrecognized form, Avr2-like (referred to as A2l). A2L can still interact with BSL1 but does not promote the association of BSL1 with R2. Our findings show that recognition of the P. infestans AVR2 effector by the NBLRR protein R2 requires the putative phosphatase BSL1. This reveals that, similar to effectors of phytopathogenic bacteria, recognition of filamentous pathogen effectors can be mediated via a host protein that interacts with both the effector and the NB-LRR immunoreceptor. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

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