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Du L.,Chongqing Medical University | Kijlstra A.,Maastricht University | Kijlstra A.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Yang P.,Chongqing Medical University
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2016

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is one of the major vision-threatening diseases in certain populations, such as Asians, native Americans, Hispanics and Middle Easterners. It is characterized by bilateral uveitis that is frequently associated with neurological (meningeal), auditory, and integumentary manifestations. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of VKH disease need to be further elucidated, it is widely accepted that the clinical manifestations are caused by an autoimmune response directed against melanin associated antigens in the target organs, i.e. the eye, inner ear, meninges and skin. In the past decades, accumulating evidence has shown that genetic factors, including VKH disease specific risk factors (HLA-DR4) and general risk factors for immune mediated diseases (IL-23R), dysfunction of immune responses, including the innate and adaptive immune system and environmental triggering factors are all involved in the development of VKH disease. Clinically, the criteria of diagnosis for VKH disease have been further improved by the employment of novel imaging techniques for the eye. For the treatment, early and adequate corticosteroids are still the mainstream regime for the disease. However, immunosuppressive and biological agents have shown benefit for the treatment of VKH disease, especially for those patients not responding to corticosteroids.This review is focused on our current knowledge of VKH disease, especially for the diagnosis, pathogenesis (genetic factors and immune mechanisms), ancillary tests and treatment. A better understanding of the role of microbiome composition, genetic basis and ongoing immune processes along with the development of novel biomarkers and objective quantitative assays to monitor intraocular inflammation are needed to improve current management of VKH patients. © 2016. Source


Jorgensen A.,Technical University of Denmark | Bikker P.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Herrmann I.T.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the 'original user' of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel rather than petrochemical diesel. Given that it is the production of the substitute for the poultry fat which mainly eliminates the benefit from using poultry fat for biodiesel, it is argued that whenever assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel made from by-products (such as rendered animal fats, used cooking oil, etc.) it is very important to include the oil's alternative use in the assessment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Becker P.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Yu P.,University of Saskatchewan | Yu P.,Tianjin Agricultural University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2013

This paper gives an insight into key factors, which impair enzymatic protein digestion. By nature, some proteins in raw products are already poorly digestible because of structural peculiarities, or due to their occurrence in plant cytoplasmic organelles or in cell membranes. In plant-based protein, molecular and structural changes can be induced by genetic engineering, even if protein is not a target compound class of the genetic modification. Other proteins only become difficult to digest due to changes that occur during the processing of proteinaceous products, such as extruding, boiling, or acidic or alkaline treatment. The utilization of proteinaceous raw materials in industrial fermentations can also have negative impacts on protein digestibility, when reused as fermentation by-products for animal nutrition, such as brewers' grains. After consumption, protein digestion can be impeded in the intestine by the presence of antinutritional factors, which are ingested together with the food or feedstuff. It is concluded that the encircling matrix, but also molecular, chemical, and structural peculiarities or modifications to amino acids and proteins obstruct protein digestion by common proteolytic enzymes in humans and animals. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Cone J.W.,Wageningen University | Becker P.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The rate and extent of rumen fermentation of different starch sources can be very different, depending on the origin of the starch, but more importantly on the technological treatment of the starchy feed ingredients. Therefore, feeding different starchy feed ingredients can contribute in a very different way to the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in the rumen, the proportion of each VFA, and the non-glucogenic to glucogenic ratio (NGR). For 14 different starchy feed ingredients, the in vitro fermentation characteristics were determined using the gas production technique. Highest rate and extent of gas production was seen for the popped feedstuffs, while lowest was seen for the native starch sources maize and potato. This was also reflected in the rate of production of individual and total VFA. However, after 12h of fermentation, differences in VFA content decreased and VFA production reflected the total fermentation of the organic matter. It proved that for the determined incubation periods (4, 8 and 12h), there was a negative linear relationship (R 2=0.33-0.79) between NGR and the amount of gas produced. There was also a negative linear relationship (R 2=0.75) between the synthesized amount of microbial protein and the rate of fermentation at the incubation period at which the substrate was just exhausted (tRmax2). This shows that fast fermenting substrates resulted in a higher amount of microbial protein than slowly fermenting substrates. Consequently, there was also a negative linear relationship (R 2=0.64) between the amount of microbial protein and NGR at tRmax2. It is concluded that fast fermenting starchy feedstuffs resulted in higher amounts of microbial protein in the rumen and a more glucogenic fermentation pattern, higher values of propionic acid and lower values of acetic acid and butyric acid. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Van Vuuren A.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Chilibroste P.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Animal | Year: 2013

The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the efficiency with which plant biomass is converted into meat and milk. The potential to increase food production by cattle, the main food-producing herbivore in the temperate zones outside China, was considered in three production systems: grassland-based, mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated systems. The potential to increase plant biomass production in grassland-based systems seems limited, unless fertiliser is imported in large quantities and crop production is increased, sacrificing valuable, high-quality grasslands, which often conflicts with sustainable production methods. Also, in mixed systems with high inputs of fertiliser or water, improvements in plant biomass production seem marginal and the main challenges for these systems are in breeding high-quality plant biomass at lower levels of fertiliser and the use of new co-products from food processing and bio-based economies. Consequently, the main challenge in herbivore nutrition management is to improve the efficiency of plant biomass utilisation. Stocking rate management along with seasonal variation in the grazing capacity of grasslands and moderate use of fertiliser may increase meat production in grassland-based systems by 400%. Improving plant biomass utilisation in the more industrialised mixed rain-fed systems seems possible by better feed storage technologies and for dairy cattle by improving animal health and lifetime production level. Managing the transition period seems crucial to achieve more sustainable mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated dairy production systems. Whether sustainable production methods will be implemented also depends on macro-economic conditions and awareness of regional and global environmental concerns. © 2011 The Animal Consortium. Source

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