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Wageningen, Netherlands

Wageningen University and Research Centre is a Dutch public university in Wageningen, Netherlands. It consists of Wageningen University and the former agricultural research institutes ) of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture. Wageningen UR trains specialists in life science and focuses its research on scientific, social and commercial problems in the field of life science and natural resources. In the field of agricultural science, the university is considered world-class. Wikipedia.

Sagis L.M.C.,Wageningen University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

The dynamic properties of interfaces often play a crucial role in the macroscopic dynamics of multiphase soft condensed matter systems. These properties affect the dynamics of emulsions, of dispersions of vesicles, of biological fluids, of coatings, of free surface flows, of immiscible polymer blends, and of many other complex systems. The study of interfacial dynamic properties, surface rheology, is therefore a relevant discipline for many branches of physics, chemistry, engineering, and life sciences. In the past three to four decades a vast amount of literature has been produced dealing with the rheological properties of interfaces stabilized by low molecular weight surfactants, proteins, (bio)polymers, lipids, colloidal particles, and various mixtures of these surface active components. In this paper recent experiments are reviewed in the field of surface rheology, with particular emphasis on the models used to analyze surface rheological data. Most of the models currently used are straightforward generalizations of models developed for the analysis of rheological data of bulk phases. In general the limits on the validity of these generalizations are not discussed. Not much use is being made of recent advances in nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalisms for multiphase systems, to construct admissible models for the stress-deformation behavior of interfaces. These formalisms are ideally suited to construct thermodynamically admissible constitutive equations for rheological behavior that include the often relevant couplings to other fluxes in the interface (heat and mass), and couplings to the transfer of mass from the bulk phase to the interface. In this review recent advances in the application of classical irreversible thermodynamics, extended irreversible thermodynamics, rational thermodynamics, extended rational thermodynamics, and the general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling formalism to multiphase systems are also discussed, and shown how these formalisms can be used to generate a wide range of thermodynamically admissible constitutive models for the surface stress tensor. Some of the generalizations currently in use are shown to have only limited validity. The aim of this review is to stimulate new developments in the fields of experimental surface rheology and constitutive modeling of multiphase systems using nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalisms and to promote a closer integration of these disciplines. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Van Huis A.,Wageningen University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Heidstra R.,Wageningen University | Sabatini S.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2014

The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into new tissues. Plant stem cell niches are located within the meristems, which are organized structures that are responsible for most post-embryonic development. The continuous organ production that is characteristic of plant growth requires a robust regulatory network to keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating progeny. Components of this network have now been elucidated and provide a unique opportunity for comparing strategies that were developed in the animal and plant kingdoms, which underlie the logic of stem cell behaviour. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

De Visser J.A.G.M.,Wageningen University | Krug J.,University of Cologne
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2014

The genotype-fitness map (that is, the fitness landscape) is a key determinant of evolution, yet it has mostly been used as a superficial metaphor because we know little about its structure. This is now changing, as real fitness landscapes are being analysed by constructing genotypes with all possible combinations of small sets of mutations observed in phylogenies or in evolution experiments. In turn, these first glimpses of empirical fitness landscapes inspire theoretical analyses of the predictability of evolution. Here, we review these recent empirical and theoretical developments, identify methodological issues and organizing principles, and discuss possibilities to develop more realistic fitness landscape models. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Wageningen University | Date: 2012-12-21

A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for adaptive antiviral defence (Cascade); the Cascade protein complex comprising at least CRISPR-associated protein subunits Cas7, Cas5 and Cas6 which includes at least one subunit with an additional amino acid sequence possessing nucleic acid or chromatin modifying, visualising, transcription activating or transcription repressing activity. The Cascade complex with additional activity is combined with an RNA molecule to produce a ribonucleoprotein complex. The RNA molecule is selected to have substantial complementarity to a target sequence. Targeted ribonucleoproteins can be used as genetic engineering tools for precise cutting of nucleic acids in homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, gene modification, gene integration, mutation repair or for their visualisation, transcriptional activation or repression. A pair of ribonucleotides fused to Fold dimers may be used to generate double-strand breakages in the DNA to facilitate these applications in a sequence-specific manner.

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