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Wageningen, Netherlands

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Wageningen, Netherlands
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De Rijk T.C.,Institute of Food Safety | Van Dam R.C.J.,Institute of Food Safety | Zomer P.,Institute of Food Safety | Boers E.A.M.,Institute of Food Safety | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Bacterial products based on Bacillus thuringiensis are registered in many countries as plant protection products (PPPs) and are widely used as insecticides and nematocides. However, certain B. thuringiensis strains produce harmful toxins and are therefore not allowed to be used as PPPs. The serotype B. thuringiensis thuringiensis produces the beta-exotoxin thuringiensin (ßeT) which is considered to be toxic for almost all forms of life including humans (WHO 1999). The use of a non-registered PPP based on B. thuringiensis thuringiensis called bitoxybacillin was established through the determination of ßeT. First, an analytical reference standard of ßeT was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography-high- resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, a confirmatory quantitative method for the determination of ßeT in PPPs and selected greenhouse crops based on LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. A limit of quantitation of 0.028 mg/kg was established, and average recoveries ranged from 85.6 % to 104.8 % with repeatability (RSDr) of 1.5-7.7 % and within-lab reproducibility (RSDWLR) of 17 %. The method was used for analysis of >100 samples. ßeT was found in leaves of ornamentals, but no evidence was found for use in edible crops. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


De Graaf A.A.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | De Graaf A.A.,Maastricht University | De Graaf A.A.,TNO | Maathuis A.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | And 11 more authors.
NMR in Biomedicine | Year: 2010

This study introduces a stable-isotope metabolic approach employing [U-13C]glucose that, as a novelty, allows selective profiling of the human intestinal microbial metabolic products of carbohydrate food components, as well as the measurement of the kinetics of their formation pathways, in a single experiment. A well-established, validated in vitro model of human intestinal fermentation was inoculated with standardized gastrointestinal microbiota from volunteers. After culture stabilization, [U-13C] glucose was added as an isotopically labeled metabolic precursor. System lumen and dialysate samples were taken at regular intervals. Metabolite concentrations and isotopic labeling were determined by NMR, GC, and enzymatic methods. The main microbial metabolites were lactate, acetate, butyrate, formate, ethanol, and glycerol. They together accounted for a 13C recovery rate as high as 91.2%. Using an NMR chemical shift prediction approach, several minor products that showed 13C incorporation were identified as organic acids, amino acids, and various alcohols. Using computer modeling of the 12C contents and 13C labeling kinetics, the metabolic fluxes in the gut microbial pathways for synthesis of lactate, formate, acetate, and butyrate were determined separately for glucose and unlabeled background substrates. This novel approach enables the study of the modulation of human intestinal function by single nutrients, providing a new rational basis for achieving control of the short-chain fatty acids profile by manipulating substrate and microbiota composition in a purposeful manner. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Fiamegos Y.C.,University of Ioannina | Kastritis P.L.,University Utrecht | Exarchou V.,University of Ioannina | Han H.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay-driven purification and structural determination of compounds from plant sources have yielded a number of pump inhibitors which acted against gram positive bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study we report the identification and characterization of 4′,5′-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4′,5′-ODCQA) from Artemisia absinthium as a pump inhibitor with a potential of targeting efflux systems in a wide panel of Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, 3′,5′-ODCQA, 4′,5′-ODCQA) was based on hyphenated chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography with post column solid-phase extraction coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Microbial susceptibility testing and potentiation of well know pump substrates revealed at least two active compounds; chlorogenic acid with weak antimicrobial activity and 4′,5′-ODCQA with pump inhibitory activity whereas 3′,5′-ODCQA was ineffective. These intitial findings were further validated with checkerboard, berberine accumulation efflux assays using efflux-related phenotypes and clinical isolates as well as molecular modeling methodology. Conclusions/Significance: These techniques facilitated the direct analysis of the active components from plant extracts, as well as dramatically reduced the time needed to analyze the compounds, without the need for prior isolation. The calculated energetics of the docking poses supported the biological information for the inhibitory capabilities of 4′,5′-ODCQA and furthermore contributed evidence that CQAs show a preferential binding to Major Facilitator Super family efflux systems, a key multidrug resistance determinant in gram-positive bacteria. © 2011 Fiamegos et al.


PubMed | Wageningen University, Wageningen Center, Food Innovation Center and Jiangnan University
Type: | Journal: Carbohydrate polymers | Year: 2015

Sweet potato starch was cross-linked using sodium trimetaphosphate and hydroxypropylated using propylene oxide. The level and position of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated by phosphorus and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P, (1)H NMR). The cross-linking reaction produced monostarch monophosphate and distarch monophosphate in a molar ratio of 1:1.03, indicating that only half of the introduced phosphorus resulted in a possible cross-link. One cross-link per approximately 2900 glucose residues was found. Phosphorylation leading to monostarch monophosphate mainly occurred at O-3 and O-6 (ratio 1:1). It was inferred that the majority of the cross-links formed in distarch monophosphate were between two glucose residues positioned in different starch chains, while a minor part of the cross-links may be formed between two glucose residues within the same starch chain. Hydroxypropylation under alkaline conditions resulted in the formation of intra-molecular phosphorus cross-links, subsequent hydroxypropylation following cross-linking lowered both the level of intra- and inter-molecular cross-linking. Using (1)H NMR the molar substitution of hydroxypropylation was determined to be 0.155-0.165. The hydroxypropylation predominantly occurred at O-2 (61%), and the level of substitution at O-6 (21%) was slightly higher than that at O-3 (17%). In dual modified starch, the preceding cross-linking procedure resulted in a slightly lower level of hydroxypropylation, where the substitution at O-6 decreased more compared to the substitution at O-2 and O-3.


Bui T.P.N.,Wageningen University | Ritari J.,University of Helsinki | Boeren S.,Wageningen University | De Waard P.,Wageningen Center | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products.


Schoonen J.-W.,Leiden University | Schoonen J.-W.,Netherlands Metabolomics Center | Vulto P.,Leiden University | Vulto P.,Netherlands Metabolomics Center | And 8 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

We report the use of pendant droplet evaporation for exchange of eluents for 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) purposes. Analytes are fed and retained in 500 nL droplets, which are concentrated by evaporation and subsequently redissolved in deuterated solvent. Droplet size is monitored by machine vision (MV), and heating rates are adjusted concordingly to maintain a stable droplet volume. Evaporation control is independent of solvent properties, and the setup handles feed rates up to 7 μL min-1. The interface is capable of exchanging up to 90% of solvent for deuterated solvent, with a good recovery and repeatability for tomato extracts (Solanum lycopersicum). The system was capable of handling both polar and nonpolar analytes in one run. Volatiles such as formate, acetate, and lactate and the thermosensitive compound epigallocatechin gallate were recovered without significant losses. Ethanol and propionate were recovered with significant losses due to the formation of a minimum boiling azeotrope. The current setup is ideally suited for on- and off-line hyphenation of liquid chromatography and NMR, as it is comprehensive, fully automated, and easy to operate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Wageningen University, Wageningen Center and University of Helsinki
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2015

Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products.


Appeldoorn M.M.,Wageningen University | De Waard P.,Wageningen Center | Kabel M.A.,Wageningen University | Gruppen H.,Wageningen University | Schols H.A.,Wageningen University
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2013

In order to use corn fiber as a source for bioethanol production the enzymatic hydrolysis of the complex glucuronoarabinoxylans present has to be improved. Several oligosaccharides present in the supernatant of mild acid pretreated and enzymatically saccharified corn fiber that resist the current available enzymes were (semi)purified for structural analysis by NMR or ESI-MSn. The structural features of 21 recalcitrant oligosaccharides are presented. A common feature of almost all these oligosaccharides is that they contain (part of) an α-l-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d- xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-5-O-trans-feruloyl-l-arabinofuranose side chain attached to the O-3 position of the β-1-4 linked xylose backbone. Several of the identified oligosaccharides contained an ethyl group at the reducing end hypothesized to be formed during SSF. The ethyl glycosides found are far more complex than previously described structures. A new feature present in more than half of the oligosaccharides is an acetyl group attached to the O-2 position of the same xylose to which the oligomeric side chain was attached to the O-3 position. Finding enzymes attacking these large side chains and the dense substituted xylan backbone will boost the hydrolysis of corn fiber glucuronoxylan. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Stepan A.M.,Chalmers University of Technology | Hoije A.,Chalmers University of Technology | Schols H.A.,Wageningen University | De Waard P.,Wageningen Center | Gatenholm P.,Chalmers University of Technology
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

Arabinoxylans (AX) from rye were partly debranched by chemical hydrolysis methods, and AXs differing in arabinosyl substitution were acetylated using chemical methods. The resulting materials are film forming, and these films underwent molecular structural analysis and were tested for their material properties. The composition and structure of the modified polymers were determined using high performance anion exchange chromatography and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance; it was shown that all free hydroxyl groups (of both xylose and arabinose) were acetylated. Further characterizations were done by dynamic mechanical analysis and thermo-gravimetric analysis to evaluate the thermal behavior of the material. The observed glass transition temperatures (T g) increased with a decrease in arabinosyl substitutions. The thermal degradation temperatures were all close to 380°C. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests of the films. Tensile tests showed that the strain at break, which reflects the flexibility of the material, was significantly higher at higher arabinosyl substitution levels. The elastic Young's modulus was not significantly affected, although a tendency was seen toward a less stiff material at higher arabinosyl substitution. The ultimate strength of the materials was remarkably high in all cases, around 60 MPa, with little difference between them. Considering these properties, a great potential is foreseen in the application of acetylated arabinoxylans as packaging films and as matrix for composites. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Westphal Y.,Wageningen University | Kuhnel S.,Wageningen University | de Waard P.,Wageningen Center | Hinz S.W.A.,Dyadic Netherlands | And 3 more authors.
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2010

Sugar beet arabinan consists of an α-(1,5)-linked backbone of l-arabinosyl residues, which can be either single or double substituted with α-(1,2)- and/or α-(1,3)-linked l-arabinosyl residues. Neutral branched arabino-oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet arabinan by enzymatic degradation with mixtures of pure and well-defined arabinohydrolases from Chrysosporium lucknowense followed by fractionation based on size and analysis by MALDI-TOF MS and HPAEC. Using NMR analysis, two main series of branched arabino-oligosaccharides have been identified, both having an α-(1,5)-linked backbone of l-arabinosyl residues. One series carries single substituted α-(1,3)-linked l-arabinosyl residues at the backbone, whereas the other series consists of a double substituted α-(1,2,3,5)-linked arabinan structure within the molecule. The structures of eight such branched arabino-oligosaccharides were established. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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