Cohen E.,University of Oxford |
Cohen E.,Wadham College |
Cohen E.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology |
Cohen E.,Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics |
And 3 more authors.
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2013
Recent theoretical models have demonstrated that phenotypic traits can support the non-random assortment of cooperators in a population, thereby permitting the evolution of cooperation. In these "tag-based models", cooperators modulate cooperation according to an observable and hard-to-fake trait displayed by potential interaction partners. Socially acquired vocalizations in general, and speech accent among humans in particular, are frequently proposed as hard to fake and hard to hide traits that display sufficient cross-populational variability to reliably guide such social assortment in fission-fusion societies. Adults' sensitivity to accent variation in social evaluation and decisions about cooperation is well-established in sociolinguistic research. The evolutionary and developmental origins of these biases are largely unknown, however. Here, we investigate the influence of speech accent on 5-10-year-old children's developing social and cooperative preferences across four Brazilian Amazonian towns. Two sites have a single dominant accent, and two sites have multiple co-existing accent varieties. We found that children's friendship and resource allocation preferences were guided by accent only in sites characterized by accent heterogeneity. Results further suggest that this may be due to a more sensitively tuned ear for accent variation. The demonstrated local-accent preference did not hold in the face of personal cost. Results suggest that mechanisms guiding tag-based assortment are likely tuned according to locally relevant tag-variation. © 2013.
News Article | December 1, 2016
WASHINGTON, DC, December 01, 2016-- William A. Nitze has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and preeminence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Recognized for more than four and one-half decades of invaluable contributions to the energy and environment field, Mr. Nitze has parlayed his knowledge and experience from a series of positions in the private, government and non-profit sectors into his current leadership roles in Oceana Energy Company and several other early stage companies including Senseye, Inc. He started his career as an associate lawyer at the firm of Sullivan & Cromwell in 1970 after receiving his JD from Harvard Law School in 1969 and BA degrees from Wadham College, Oxford, and Harvard College in 1966 and 1964, respectively.In 1972, Mr. Nitze left Sullivan & Cromwell to devote himself to the reorganization of London Arts, Inc. as its Vice-President. After successful completion of this task, he joined Mobil Oil Corporation in 1974 as counsel in Mobil South, Inc., where he handled legal matters with respect to the reorganization of Mobil's marketing activities in a number of Southern Hemisphere countries, briefly acting as General Manager of Mobil Oil Zaire during the summer of 1975. In 1976, Mr. Nitze was appointed General Counsel and a Director of Mobil Oil Japan in Tokyo, where he managed the company's legal portfolio and represented it in critical profit-sharing negotiations.In 1980, he returned to New York City as an Associate General Counsel of Mobil's Exploration and Producing Division, where he spent the next seven years working on legal matters related to Mobil's exploration and producing activities in East Africa, the North Sea and North America. During this period Mr. Nitze became increasingly involved in New York Republican politics building on his prior position as Chairman of Republicans Abroad - Japan, an involvement that finally led to his receiving a political position in the Reagan Administration as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment, Health and Natural Resources in 1987.After acting as the State Department's working level negotiator on a broad range of international environmental issues including ozone depletion, acid rain, chemical safety, wildlife conservation and climate change, Mr. Nitze left government in early 1990 to become a visiting scholar at the Environmental Law Institute (ELI). At ELI he wrote a paper jointly published by ELI and the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London on formulating a climate convention many of whose proposed elements were reflected in the International Framework Convention on Climate Change signed at Rio de Janeiro in 1992.Later in 1990, Mr. Nitze became President of the Alliance to Save Energy, a broad coalition of elected officials, industry and union leaders, environmental NGOs and regulators dedicated to promoting programs, investments, standards and other policies to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. and abroad. During this period, he also became a professional lecturer at the Johns Hopkins School of International Studies, co-teaching a course on the formulation of international environmental regimes with a focus on climate change. Mr. Nitze subsequently taught or co-taught this course several more times and in 2016 resumed his teaching career as an adjunct faculty member at George Mason University co-teaching a course on ethics and artificial intelligence.He was nominated and confirmed as Assistant Administrator for International Activities at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1994. During his six and one-half years in that position, Mr. Nitze represented the Administrator in managing bi-lateral and tri-lateral efforts to address transboundary pollution issues and build environmental infrastructure in North America and led efforts to strengthen environmental cooperation with key countries around the world. He also partnered with his counterpart at the Department of Defense in a new environmental security initiative to help the Russian Federation better manage its low and high-level nuclear waste.After leaving government at the end of the Clinton Administration in 2001, Mr. Nitze pursued a number of entrepreneurial activities in the energy and environment field, including consulting as President of the Gemstar Group and becoming the founding Chairman of GridPoint, Inc., an energy management company, in 2003. He also played a leadership role in several environmental non-profits, serving as Chairman of the Climate Institute (2002-9) and the Galapagos Conservancy (2003-9). He has been Chairman of Oceana since 2006 and Vice-Chairman of Senseye since 2015. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, Mr. Nitze serves as Chairman of the Advisory Board at the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies at George Mason.A shining example of skill in the field, Mr. Nitze has achieved much throughout his long-standing career. He was recognized by numerous honors publications, such as Who's Who in America, where he was featured 21 times, Who's Who in American Law, 13 times, and Who's Who in American Politics, four times. Looking ahead, he intends to experience the continued growth and success of his career.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com
Farrell E.J.,Wadham College |
Ubeda F.,Royal Holloway, University of London |
Gardner A.,University of St. Andrews
American Naturalist | Year: 2015
Intragenomic conflict may arise when social partners are more related through one parent than the other—for example, owing to individuals or gametes of one sex dispersing further prior to fertilization. In particular, genes originating from the former parent are favored to promote selflessness, and those originating from the latter parent are favored to promote selfishness. While the impact of patterns of dispersal on the evolution of intragenomic conflict has received recent attention, the consequences of intragenomic conflict for the evolution of dispersal remain to be explored. We suggest that if the evolution of dispersal is driven at least in part by kin selection, differential relatedness of social partners via their mothers versus their fathers may lead to an intragenomic conflict, with maternal-origin genes and paternal-origin genes favoring different rates of dispersal. As an illustration, we extend a classic model of the evolution of dispersal to explore how intragenomic conflict may arise between an individual’s maternal-origin and paternal-origin genes over whether that individual should disperse in order to ease kin competition. Our analysis reveals extensive potential for intragenomic conflict over dispersal and predicts that genes underpinning dispersal phenotypesmay exhibit parent-of-origin-specific expression, which may facilitate their discovery. © 2015 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
Partington T.,Wadham College |
Farmery A.,Wadham College
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2014
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is determined by the volumes of brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid within the skull, which is of course of fixed volume. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis states that an increase in volume of one of these components must be compensated for by a reduction in volume of one or both of the others. If this compensation is insufficient, then potentially fatal increases in ICP can occur. Maintenance of relatively constant ICP is essential for normal perfusion of the brain. Cerebral blood flow is regulated both globally, in order to prevent hypo- or hyper-perfusion resulting from changes in systemic arterial blood pressure, and locally, to meet the dynamic oxygen and substrate demands of different brain regions. Monitoring of ICP and the cerebral blood supply is possible through a variety of invasive and non-invasive techniques, and these techniques are already established in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hoyano L.C.H.,Wadham College
Criminal Law Review | Year: 2010
This article maps and analyses the changes made by the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 to existing Special Measures Directions for child witnesses, child defendants and complainants of sexual assault under the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. Adult defendants suffering from some form of significant mental impairment are for the first time made eligible to apply for leave to testify using the live link and with the assistance of an intermediary. In addition, the 2009 Act deems witnesses to violent offences against the person involving the use of firearms or knives to be intimidated and hence automatically eligible for Special Measures. The article concludes that the measures for defendants do not go far enough and are susceptible to challenge under art. 6 ECHR, and perhaps go too far in introducing anomalies in the treatment of different categories of intimidated witnesses. © 2010 THOMSON REUTERS (LEGAL) LIMITED.
Tarr B.,University of Oxford |
Launay J.,University of Oxford |
Cohen E.,University of Oxford |
Cohen E.,Wadham College |
Dunbar R.,University of Oxford
Biology Letters | Year: 2015
Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and rewardinducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 X 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. © 2015 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Chapman A.,Wadham College
Astronomy and Geophysics | Year: 2016
Before they could join the RAS, many women were influential members of amateur astronomical societies across the country, as Allan Chapman explains. © 2016 Royal Astronomical Society.
Waterhouse B.R.,Wadham College |
Farmery A.D.,Wadham College
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2012
The water contained in the body is divided amongst compartments of differing sizes and compositions. The dynamic balance across these compartments is an essential component of normal physiology. Here, the calculation of these volumes by measuring the dilution of markers able to permeate specific compartments is considered. Furthermore, the potential disadvantages to the approach are discussed. The differences in ionic concentration between intracellular and extracellular fluid are quantified and the effects of greater relative protein concentration within cells are also considered. To illustrate daily fluid balance in a healthy individual, a typical intake and output over 24 hours is quantified before consideration of iatrogenic contributions to this equilibrium. The way in which clinically administered fluids of varying compositions affect the fluid compartments is subsequently discussed. The endogenous processes contributing to volume homeostasis are then deliberated including the detection of fluid imbalance through intracellular and extracellular systems as well as the hypothalamic and renal effector mechanisms. Finally, the regulation of sodium is discussed with examination of the mechanisms controlling natriuresis and the reciprocity with potassium balance. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
James Roberts A.,Wadham College
Bioethics | Year: 2016
In a recent article in this journal, Carl Knight and Andreas Albertsen argue that Rawlsian theories of distributive justice as applied to health and healthcare fail to accommodate both palliative care and the desirability of less painful treatments. The asserted Rawlsian focus on opportunities or capacities, as exemplified in Normal Daniels’ developments of John Rawls’ theory, results in a normative account of healthcare which is at best only indirectly sensitive to pain and so unable to account for the value of efforts of which the sole purpose is pain reduction. I argue that, far from undermining the Rawlsian project and its application to problems of health, what the authors’ argument at most amounts to is a compelling case for the inclusion of freedom from physical pain within its index of primary goods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hickish T.,Wadham College |
Farmery A.D.,Wadham College
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2012
The traditional approach to acid-base physiology is based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation which is derived from the CO 2/HCO 3 - buffer system. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that this is an incomplete analysis as it focuses on only one of the six reactions involving H + and can lead to the incorrect assumption that CO 2 and HCO 3 - are independently adjusted factors that ultimately determine pH. In 1983, Stewart, a Canadian physiologist, proposed that a fuller understanding of acid-base physiology required consideration of biological fluids as a complex dynamic system, taking into account the interactions of all the chemical species involved. He showed that the true independent variables controlling the pH of any given fluid compartment are: the difference in the concentration of 'strong ions', the total concentration of 'weak acid', and the PCO 2. Importantly, H + and HCO 3 - are dependent variables and it is incorrect to think of them as being specifically regulated to manipulate pH. This review will discuss the importance of pH homeostasis and highlight the implications of the Stewart approach in our understanding of acid-base control mechanisms and disorders. In particular, the true mechanisms by which the kidney regulates plasma pH will be discussed, emphasizing key misconceptions that have been propagated as a result of the traditional approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.