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Oxford, United Kingdom

Farrell E.J.,Wadham College | Ubeda F.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Gardner A.,University of St. Andrews
American Naturalist

Intragenomic conflict may arise when social partners are more related through one parent than the other—for example, owing to individuals or gametes of one sex dispersing further prior to fertilization. In particular, genes originating from the former parent are favored to promote selflessness, and those originating from the latter parent are favored to promote selfishness. While the impact of patterns of dispersal on the evolution of intragenomic conflict has received recent attention, the consequences of intragenomic conflict for the evolution of dispersal remain to be explored. We suggest that if the evolution of dispersal is driven at least in part by kin selection, differential relatedness of social partners via their mothers versus their fathers may lead to an intragenomic conflict, with maternal-origin genes and paternal-origin genes favoring different rates of dispersal. As an illustration, we extend a classic model of the evolution of dispersal to explore how intragenomic conflict may arise between an individual’s maternal-origin and paternal-origin genes over whether that individual should disperse in order to ease kin competition. Our analysis reveals extensive potential for intragenomic conflict over dispersal and predicts that genes underpinning dispersal phenotypesmay exhibit parent-of-origin-specific expression, which may facilitate their discovery. © 2015 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. Source

This article maps and analyses the changes made by the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 to existing Special Measures Directions for child witnesses, child defendants and complainants of sexual assault under the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. Adult defendants suffering from some form of significant mental impairment are for the first time made eligible to apply for leave to testify using the live link and with the assistance of an intermediary. In addition, the 2009 Act deems witnesses to violent offences against the person involving the use of firearms or knives to be intimidated and hence automatically eligible for Special Measures. The article concludes that the measures for defendants do not go far enough and are susceptible to challenge under art. 6 ECHR, and perhaps go too far in introducing anomalies in the treatment of different categories of intimidated witnesses. © 2010 THOMSON REUTERS (LEGAL) LIMITED. Source

Waterhouse B.R.,North Bristol NHS Trust | Farmery A.D.,Wadham College
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine

The water contained in the body is divided amongst compartments of differing sizes and compositions. The dynamic balance across these compartments is an essential component of normal physiology. Here, the calculation of these volumes by measuring the dilution of markers able to permeate specific compartments is considered. Furthermore, the potential disadvantages to the approach are discussed. The differences in ionic concentration between intracellular and extracellular fluid are quantified and the effects of greater relative protein concentration within cells are also considered. To illustrate daily fluid balance in a healthy individual, a typical intake and output over 24 hours is quantified before consideration of iatrogenic contributions to this equilibrium. The way in which clinically administered fluids of varying compositions affect the fluid compartments is subsequently discussed. The endogenous processes contributing to volume homeostasis are then deliberated including the detection of fluid imbalance through intracellular and extracellular systems as well as the hypothalamic and renal effector mechanisms. Finally, the regulation of sodium is discussed with examination of the mechanisms controlling natriuresis and the reciprocity with potassium balance. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tarr B.,University of Oxford | Launay J.,University of Oxford | Cohen E.,University of Oxford | Cohen E.,Wadham College | Dunbar R.,University of Oxford
Biology Letters

Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and rewardinducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 X 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. © 2015 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Source

Cohen E.,University of Oxford | Cohen E.,Wadham College | Cohen E.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Cohen E.,Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics | And 3 more authors.
Evolution and Human Behavior

Recent theoretical models have demonstrated that phenotypic traits can support the non-random assortment of cooperators in a population, thereby permitting the evolution of cooperation. In these "tag-based models", cooperators modulate cooperation according to an observable and hard-to-fake trait displayed by potential interaction partners. Socially acquired vocalizations in general, and speech accent among humans in particular, are frequently proposed as hard to fake and hard to hide traits that display sufficient cross-populational variability to reliably guide such social assortment in fission-fusion societies. Adults' sensitivity to accent variation in social evaluation and decisions about cooperation is well-established in sociolinguistic research. The evolutionary and developmental origins of these biases are largely unknown, however. Here, we investigate the influence of speech accent on 5-10-year-old children's developing social and cooperative preferences across four Brazilian Amazonian towns. Two sites have a single dominant accent, and two sites have multiple co-existing accent varieties. We found that children's friendship and resource allocation preferences were guided by accent only in sites characterized by accent heterogeneity. Results further suggest that this may be due to a more sensitively tuned ear for accent variation. The demonstrated local-accent preference did not hold in the face of personal cost. Results suggest that mechanisms guiding tag-based assortment are likely tuned according to locally relevant tag-variation. © 2013. Source

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