Wa, Ghana
Wa, Ghana

The Wa Polytechnic is a public tertiary institution in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Wikipedia.


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Adeloye A.J.,Heriot - Watt University | Rustum R.,University of Dammam | Kariyama I.D.,Wa Polytechnic
Water Resources Research | Year: 2011

Reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o) estimation is of importance in irrigation water management for the calculation of crop water requirements and its scheduling, in rainfall-runoff modeling and in numerous other water resources studies. Due to its importance, several direct and indirect methods have been employed to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration but success has been limited because the direct measurement methods lack in precision and accuracy due to scale issues and other problems, while some of the more accurate indirect methods, e.g., the Penman-Monteith benchmark model, are time-consuming and require weather input data that are not routinely monitored. This paper has used the Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM), unsupervised artificial neural networks, to predict the ET o. based on observed daily weather data at two climatically diverse basins: a small experimental catchment in temperate Edinburgh, UK and a semiarid lake basin in Udaipur, India. This was achieved by using the powerful clustering capability of the KSOM to analyze the multidimensional data array comprising the estimated ET o (based on the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith model) and different subsets of climatic variables known to affect it. The findings indicate that the KSOM-based ET o estimates even with fewer input variables were in good agreement with those obtained using the conventional FAO Penman-Monteith formulation employing the full complement of weather data at the two locations. More crucially, the KSOM-based estimates were also found to be significantly superior to those estimated using currently recommended empirical ET o methods for data scarce situations such as those in developing countries. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Adeloye A.J.,Heriot - Watt University | Rustum R.,University of Dammam | Kariyama I.D.,Wa Polytechnic
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2012

Reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o) estimation is of importance in irrigation water management for the calculation of crop water requirements and its scheduling, in rainfall-runoff modeling and in numerous other water resources studies. Due to its importance, several direct and indirect methods have been employed to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration but success has been limited because the direct measurement methods lack in precision and accuracy due to scale issues and other problems, while some of the more accurate indirect methods, e.g. the Penman-Monteith benchmark model, are extremely non-linear and require weather input data that are not routinely monitored. In such situations, artificial intelligence (AI), neural computing techniques that are able to accurately map complex, non-linear input-output relationships offer a useful alternative. This paper has used the Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM), unsupervised artificial neural networks, to develop prediction models for the ET o. This was achieved by using the powerful clustering capability of the SOM to analyze the multi-dimensional data array comprising the estimated ET o (based on the FAO Penman-Monteith model) and different subsets of climatic variables known to affect it. The findings indicate that the SOM-based ET o estimates, even when forced with fewer input data variables, were in good agreement with those obtained using the conventional FAO Penman-Monteith formulation employing the full complement of weather data. Further comparisons were carried out between the SOM model estimates of the ET o and those based on the use of feed-forward back propagation supervised artificial neural networks and the results showed that the SOM estimates were superior. Finally, the SOM-based estimates were also found to be significantly superior to those estimated using established empirical ET o methods recommended in the literature for situations where the full complement of input weather needed to drive the Penman-Monteith model are unavailable. This offers significant potential for more accurate estimation of the ET o in data scarce regions of the world. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bangoura M.L.,Jiangnan University | Bangoura M.L.,University of Gamal Abdel Nasser of Conakry | Nsor-Atindana J.,Jiangnan University | Nsor-Atindana J.,Wa Polytechnic | Ming Z.H.,Jiangnan University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS' + radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS'+. No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS'+. In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Quansah E.,De Montfort University | Quansah E.,University Of Cape Coast | Karikari T.K.,Wa Polytechnic
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are devastating neurological diseases that are characterised by gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons. Major types of MNDs include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). These diseases are incurable, with limited disease-modifying treatment options. In order to improve MND-based biomedical research, drug development, and clinical care, population-based studies will be important. These studies, especially among less-studied populations, might identify novel factors controlling disease susceptibility and resistance. To evaluate progress in MND research in Africa, we examined the published literature on MNDs in Sub-Saharan Africa to identify disease prevalence, genetic factors, and other risk factors. Our findings indicate that the amount of research evidence on MNDs in Sub-Saharan Africa is scanty; molecular and genetics-based studies are particularly lacking. While only a few genetic studies were identified, these studies strongly suggest that there appear to be population-specific causes of MNDs among Africans. MND genetic underpinnings vary among different African populations and also between African and non-African populations. Further studies, especially molecular, genetic and genomic studies, will be required to advance our understanding of MND biology among African populations. Insights from these studies would help to improve the timeliness and accuracy of clinical diagnosis and treatment. © 2015 Emmanuel Quansah and Thomas K. Karikari.


PubMed | Wa Polytechnic and University Of Cape Coast
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are devastating neurological diseases that are characterised by gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons. Major types of MNDs include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). These diseases are incurable, with limited disease-modifying treatment options. In order to improve MND-based biomedical research, drug development, and clinical care, population-based studies will be important. These studies, especially among less-studied populations, might identify novel factors controlling disease susceptibility and resistance. To evaluate progress in MND research in Africa, we examined the published literature on MNDs in Sub-Saharan Africa to identify disease prevalence, genetic factors, and other risk factors. Our findings indicate that the amount of research evidence on MNDs in Sub-Saharan Africa is scanty; molecular and genetics-based studies are particularly lacking. While only a few genetic studies were identified, these studies strongly suggest that there appear to be population-specific causes of MNDs among Africans. MND genetic underpinnings vary among different African populations and also between African and non-African populations. Further studies, especially molecular, genetic and genomic studies, will be required to advance our understanding of MND biology among African populations. Insights from these studies would help to improve the timeliness and accuracy of clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Dansieh S.A.,Wa Polytechnic
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2011

One area that cannot be overlooked when it comes to translating from a foreign language into an African language is its morphology. In this paper, we discuss one of the most pervasive morphological phenomena in African languages - reduplication. The article seeks to examine which structures in English are translatable as reduplicates in Dagaare, a Gur language of West Africa. It is an attempt at departing from the conventional morphosyntactic perspective to a pragmatic/translation perspective. Basically, we consider reduplication as a morphological process with certain grammatical functions such as plurarity, intensification, iteration and augmentation. As instances of reduplication from actual translations into Dagaare from English are examined, attention will be paid to a possible difference between uses of reduplication that have become grammaticalised so that the meaning is not modified in context; and uses which may be said to convey some general procedural information to be developed further by means of inferential processing, for instance, some heightened value of some quality or quantity or event referred to. The analysis will be done within the framework of Sperber and Wilson's relevance theory of communication. It is hoped this research will help shed more light on this interestingly pervasive but inadequately researched area of Pragmatics. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ofori-Boateng K.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration | Insah B.,Wa Polytechnic
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management | Year: 2014

Purpose – The study aimed at examining the current and future impact of climate change on cocoa production in West Africa. Design/methodology/approach – A translog production function based on crop yield response framework was used. A panel model was estimated using data drawn from cocoa-producing countries in West Africa. An in-sample simulation was used to determine the predictive power of the model. In addition, an out-sample simulation revealed the effect of future trends of temperature and precipitation on cocoa output. Findings – Temperature and precipitation play a considerable role in cocoa production in West Africa. It was established that extreme temperature adversely affected cocoa output in the sub-region. Furthermore, increasing temperature and declining precipitation trends will reduce cocoa output in the future. Practical implications – An important implication of this study is the recognition that lagging effects are the determinants of cocoa output and not coincident effects. This finds support from the agronomic point of view considering the gestation period of the cocoa crop. Originality/value – Although several studies have been carried out in this area, this study modeled and estimated the interacting effects of factors that influence cocoa production. This is closer to reality, as climatic factors and agricultural inputs combine to yield output. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


PubMed | Wa Polytechnic
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2016

Integrity in academic work is a critical benchmark of every profession. For this reason, special attention should be devoted to addressing academic dishonesty (AD) in higher education to prevent the potential transfer of these practices to the workplace. In order to effectively address AD in Africa, further information about correlates of, and barriers to, the effectiveness of existing AD-controlling measures is needed. In Ghana, little is known about AD from the perspective of students. Here, we present a first report of Ghanaian undergraduate students self-reported understanding of, and support for, institutional AD regulations, their involvement in specific dishonest behaviours, as well as their motivation factors.Approximately 92% of respondents said they were aware of institutional regulations on AD. However, only 31% rated their understanding as high. Respondents believed that their lecturers had better understanding of, and support for, these regulations than the students (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Approximately 40% of respondents had witnessed their colleagues engage in AD before, but the majority (94%) had never reported these acts. The pursuit of good grades, high academic load and pressure to please family and guardians were the leading causes of AD. Cheating during examinations and inappropriately sharing answers in the preparation of assignments were some of the highly-occurring forms of AD. Respondents believed that copying colleagues work without their permission was a serious offense but doing so with their permission was not.Our findings suggest that the sampled students consent to cheating-they believed that they committed no misconduct once the parties involved had agreed on the act. Considering these misconceptions, institutions should do more to help their students better understand the different forms of AD and how to avoid them.


PubMed | Wa Polytechnic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS computational biology | Year: 2015

Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.


PubMed | Wa Polytechnic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2016

Underground water is an important natural resource serving as a reliable source of drinking water for many people worldwide, especially in developing countries. Underground water quality needs to be given a primary research and quality control attention due to possible contamination. This study was therefore designed to determine the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of borehole water in the Upper West and Northern regions of Ghana.The study was conducted in seven districts in Ghana (including six in the Upper West region and one in the Northern region). The bacterial load of the water samples was determined using standard microbiological methods. Physico-chemical properties including pH, total alkalinity, temperature, turbidity, true colour, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total iron, calcium ion, magnesium ion, chloride ion, fluoride ion, aluminium ion, arsenic, ammonium ions, nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined. The values obtained were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water.The recorded pH, total alkalinity and temperature ranges were 6.14-7.50, 48-240mg/l and 28.8-32.8C, respectively. Furthermore, the mean concentrations of iron, calcium, magnesium, chloride, fluoride, aluminium, arsenic, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite were 0.06, 22.11, 29.84, 13.97, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.01, 2.09 and 0.26mg/l, respectively. Turbidity, true colour, TDS and electrical conductivity of the water samples ranged from 0.13 to 105NTU, 5 to 130HU, 80.1 to 524mg/l and 131 to 873S/cm, respectively. In addition, the mean total hardness value was found to be 178.07mg/l whereas calcium hardness and magnesium hardness respectively were 55.28 and 122.79mg/l. Only 14% of the water samples tested positive for faecal coliforms.The study revealed that only a few of the values for the bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters of the water samples were above the tolerable limits recommended by the WHO. This calls for regular monitoring and purification of boreholes to ensure good water quality.

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