W2364 Heather Street

Oconomowoc, WI, United States

W2364 Heather Street

Oconomowoc, WI, United States

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Stout W.E.,W2364 Heather Street | Rosenfield R.N.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point
Journal of Raptor Research | Year: 2010

Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) have recently colonized many urban landscapes across North America, but data on breeding densities and trends in densities of these populations are lacking. We surveyed for woodland raptors throughout approximately 1000 km 2 in the metropolitan Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area over a 21-yr period, 19882008. We documented the natural colonization of this urban landscape by a pioneer Cooper's Hawk population and its subsequent growth from 19932008 (4 to 41 laying pairs, 4 to 55 occupied sites). Nearest-nest distances decreased and the number of Cooper's Hawk laying pairs increased while nesting surveys remained consistent temporally and spatially, indicating that density of breeding pairs was increasing in the metropolitan Milwaukee area. Approximately 15 yr after initial colonization, the breeding density of Cooper's Hawks in some localized areas averaged one laying pair per 330 ha (range: 68587 ha). From 19962008, as breeding density increased, average annual productivity (number of young/laying pair) for Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee County, a subset of the overall larger metropolitan study area, also increased. During the early years of colonization, a relatively high proportion of individuals or pairs of birds appeared to occupy nest sites but did not breed. Younger birds may have played a role in the colonization of this urban landscape. This population was likely increasing at a relatively rapid rate during the late 1990s and continued to increase throughout the remainder of our study. © 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.


Rosenfield R.N.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Sonsthagen S.A.,U.S. Geological Survey | Stout W.E.,W2364 Heather Street | Talbot S.L.,U.S. Geological Survey
Journal of Field Ornithology | Year: 2015

Raptors exhibit some of the highest rates of intra-pair copulations among birds, perhaps in an attempt by males to reduce the risk of being cuckolded. Indeed, the frequency of extra-pair fertilizations reported in studies of raptors to date is relatively low (0-11.2%). Socially monogamous Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) exhibit one of the highest copulation rates among birds, yet there are no published accounts of extra-pair copulations (or paternity). We studied a population of Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during three breeding seasons (2003, 2004, and 2007), examining the possible effects of age (1 yr old vs. ≥ 2 yr old), adult mass, and brood size on the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that 19.3% of nestlings (N = 27/140) were extra-pair young (EPY), and 34% of all broods (N = 15/44) had at least one EPY. The sires of the EPY in our study were identified for only two broods, suggesting that floater males may have engaged in extra-pair copulations with territorial females. We found that brood size was a good predictor of the occurrence of EPP (EPP) in nests, but adult mass and female age were not. To our knowledge, these possible correlates of the occurrence of EPP in raptors had not previously been investigated. Male Cooper's Hawks provide food for females during the pre-nesting period, and delivery of food is, in contrast to other raptor species, typically followed by copulation. Thus, one possible explanation of the relatively high rates of EPP in our study is that females might accept or even solicit extra-pair copulations from males other than their mates as a means of maximizing energy intake for egg production. Such behavior might be particularly likely in our study area, i.e., a food-rich urban setting with a high breeding density of Cooper's Hawks. © 2015 Association of Field Ornithologists.


Rosenfield R.N.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Rosenfield L.J.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Bielefeldt J.,S65 W. 38010 | Murphy R.K.,University of Nebraska at Kearney | And 4 more authors.
Condor | Year: 2010

Few studies at a broad geographical scale have characterized intraspecific variation in morphology of woodland hawks in the genus Accipiter. from 1999 to 2007 we investigated morphological variation in large samples of live Cooper's hawks (A. cooperii) nesting in four study areas: coniferous woodland around Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, isolated deciduous woodlands in short-grass prairies of northwestern North Dakota, towns and rural deciduous woodlands along the border of North Dakota and Minnesota, and urban and rural mixed deciduous and coniferous landscapes of Wisconsin. These sites span 2660 km across the northern part of the species' breeding range. We measured body mass (i.e., size), wing chord, tail length, tarsus diameter, hallux length, and culmen length of breeding adults, finding significant and clinal variation in body mass (or size). The smallest and most similar-sized birds occurred in British Columbia and western North Dakota, larger birds along the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, and the largest birds in Wisconsin. Several other characters varied significantly when mass was used as a covariate. Variation by study site in mean indices of sexual size dimorphism was negligible and not significant. We speculate that the morphological differences we found, in part, are the result of geographic isolation, where diets, migratory behavior, and structural characteristics of nesting habitats vary across landscape types. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.


Sonsthagen S.A.,U.S. Geological Survey | Rosenfield R.N.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Murphy R.K.,University of Nebraska at Kearney | Stewart A.C.,3932 Telegraph Bay Road | And 5 more authors.
Auk | Year: 2012

Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (F ST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST = 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains-Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PST and FST estimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations. © The American Ornithologists' Union, 2012.


Rosenfield R.N.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Stout W.E.,W2364 Heather Street | Giovanni M.D.,Midwest Ecological Services | Levine N.H.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for two age cohorts of female Cooper's hawks in Wisconsin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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