Vyzkumny ustav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasne zahradnictvi

Brno, Czech Republic

Vyzkumny ustav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasne zahradnictvi

Brno, Czech Republic
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Cerny K.,Vyzkumny Ustav Silva Taroucy pro Krajinu a Okrasne zahradnictvi | Peskova V.,Vyzkumny Ustav Lesniho Hospodarstvi a Myslivosti | Modlinger R.,Vyzkumny Ustav Lesniho Hospodarstvi a Myslivosti
Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu | Year: 2015

An extensive research of distribution of phytophthora disease of alders (primarily caused by Phytophthora alni) was carried out in more than 800 forest plantations in the Czech Republic in 2013. The disease was identified in more than 50% of forest alder plantations, the average damage of alder stands was about 10%. The impact of the disease was more prominent in lower altitudes, in stands with excess of water and with presence of wider watercourses. The relation between the presence of the disease and the age of alder stands was not identified. It should be stated that the pathogen spreads primarily by natural way via watercourses in the area, similarly as in the case of riparian alder stands. The spread of the pathogen with infected alder saplings is still probably limited. However, increase of its importance should be awaited in near future.

Krejci T.,Mendel University in Brno | Klusacek P.,Mendel University in Brno | Martinat S.,Slezska univerzita v O pave | Havlicek M.,Vyzkumny ustav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasne zahradnictvi
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2014

In the period after 1989, the sugar industry was influenced by a dramatic transition process, which was accompanied by many changes as for example: some sugar factories ruduced their production, other closed down completely; there were changes of ownership and increased role of foreign (often unpredictable) investors, modifications of sugar distribution nets and technological innovations. All these changes have spatial consequences which are visible both in cases of currently operating sugar factories and in cases of brownfields previously used for the needs of sugar industry. These types of brownfields are usually set in specific locations with good transport connection, often in existing urban structures. This fact creates relatively very good potential for new and alternative redevelopment of these sites. There is no doubt that sugar industry belonged to very important economic activities, which had a significant influence on the previous development of Czech industrial and agricultural activities. In this context, it is necessary to appreciate all activities, which are trying to save at least part of the sugar industry heritage and preserve the original local identity of the sites, where sugar used to be produced.In the article, the authors analyse the destiny of selected sugar factories, which operated in 1980s (last decade of the centrally planned economy), but which lost their original sugar production functions in the periods after return of the market economy after 1989. The article opens some important, yet not often discussed, questions (What is role of representatives of the municipalities in the process of protecting and saving the sugar industry heritage?); it also gives examples of best and bad practices related to brownfields previously used for sugar industry. The research identified that approximately half of the studied locations (21 sugar factories from the total of 49 used for sugar production in 1980s) were regenerated in a way that caused losing the sugar industry heritage and a significant number is still abandoned and neglected (11 brownfields previously used for sugar production). The most appropriate way of regeneration, which at least partly preserved the sugar industry heritage and supported the “sugar” local identity, was identified only in 6 studied areas. These best practices can be used as a source of inspiration for future (not only for sugar industry) brownfield regeneration both for stakeholders at local and regional hierarchical levels. © 2014, Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske. All rights reserved.

Vyhnanek T.,Mendel University in Brno | Bacovsky V.,Mendel University in Brno | Vlasinova H.,Mendel University in Brno | Havel L.,Mendel University in Brno | And 2 more authors.
Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu | Year: 2013

Genetic variability was studied in two species of the genus Aesculus L.: A. turbinata and A. hippocastanum; ten clones of explant cultures of A. hippocastanum L. derived by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from donor resistant and susceptible to horse chestnut leaf-miner (Cameraria ohridella) were compared using microsatellite (SSR) markers. A total of 28 alleles were detected at the 8 SSR loci. The number of alleles generated by each marker ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 3.5 alleles per locus. Statistical indicators were calculated for each SSR marker. We found low level of genetic variability. The value of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.00 to 0.74 (average 0.43). Conformity of donor plant resistant to C. ohridella and its in vitro horse chestnut clones (cultivar 'Mertelík') was demonstrated. No changes caused by in vitro cultivation were observed on molecular level. On the contrary, explant cultures of the susceptible genotype of A. hippocastanum did not report an assumed donor plant. This susceptible genotype was significantly different from the other A. hippocastanum genotypes. Despite a small sample analysis the possibility of using SSR markers for identification of donor plants and derived explant cultures was demonstrated.

Meisl T.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Dubsky M.,Vyzkumny Ustav Silva Taroucy Pro Krajinu A Okrasne Zahradnictvi | Sramek F.,Vyzkumny Ustav Silva Taroucy Pro Krajinu A Okrasne Zahradnictvi | Necas T.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

This work deals with the effect of two clay products differing in particle size distribution on properties of growing substrate and on growth of containerized woody plants in substrates amended with these clay products. Fine and coarse clay were added to a peat substrate, each at two rates. The peat substrate without clay was used as a control. The substrates were tested in experiments with two woody ornamentals (Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd' and Prunus cistena). Chemical and physical properties of the substrates were measured according to European Standards before planting. Proportion of water categories differing in availability to the plants were calculated from retention curves measured on the sand box. Properties of substrates in containers with and without plants were evaluated in the same way at the end of the culture. Clay addition changed chemical and physical properties of the tested substrates in terms: available nutrients content, particle density, bulk density, total pore volume, easy available water, water buffering capacity, air capacity, and shrinkage. The effect of fine clay was much stronger. In comparison with the clear effect of clay addition on the substrate chemical and physical properties, the effect on the growth and quality of model woody plants was not so explicit.

Havrdova L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Cerny K.,Vyzkumny ustav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasne zahradnictvi
Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu | Year: 2013

The aim of the article is the investigation of potential importance of air humidity in ash dieback epidemiology. The investigation linked up to the previous investigation of the disease impact in different types of ash vegetation in the Lusatian Mountains Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic. The sensors Datalogger Minikin THi (EMS Brno) measuring the air humidity were installed in 50 permanent plots respecting the diversity of ash stands in the area. The air humidity was measured 4.5 m above ground level in the centre of research plots. The data were recorded in 15-min intervals during June and August 2012 (the main period of ascosporic spread). The data were compared to extent of damage caused by ash dieback in research plots. It was found out that the average air humidity statistically differed among vegetation types and corresponded to the disease impact. The highest level of air humidity was in riparian stands and in ash-alder mixed alluvial forest-i.e. in vegetation types with the highest disease impact. The lowest air humidity was recorded in isolated trees in open landscape, which were the less affected category of ash vegetation. Moreover, the statistically evident regression of extent of ash damage on the air humidity was found out.

Havlickova K.,Vyzkumny Ustav Silva Taroucy Pro Krajinu A Okrasne Zahradnictvi | Weger J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Silva Taroucy Pro Krajinu A Okrasne Zahradnictvi | Sediva J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Silva Taroucy Pro Krajinu A Okrasne Zahradnictvi
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

This article deals with the issue of a methodology for and analyzing biomass potential in the Czech Republic using a geographic information system. The biomass sources considered include cereal and rape straw, permanent grasslands and forest residuals. The process of assessing biomass potential from agricultural soils is based on assigning yields of individual biomass sources according to the production soil-ecological units (BPEJ) which were created for better agricultural planning in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The analysis of energy crop suitability is based on the evaluation of crop yields related to individual BPEJ's respectively to its component the main soil climate units (HPKJ). To ascertain the production potential of residual biomass (straw) from conventional agriculture, the wheat (grain) yield related to HPKJ was multiplied by the straw coefficient. The yield of the permanent grasslands in the main soil climate units was also multiplied by the coefficient of dry matter. The methodology for the analysis of biomass potential for forest land is based on forest management plans that describe the composition of all forest stands. Data from these forest management plans can be used to determine in detail the potential of the forest biomass in individual periods according to the plan for silvacultural treatment and major harvest of the wood. This detailed analysis is suitable only on the municipality level. On a higher government level, the forest management plan can be used to calculate a coefficient that determines the average yield from biomass in the form of forest residuals and in relation to the forest size for specific areas or levels of analysis. The energy potential of residual biomass is around 136 PJ from present area of conventional agriculture in the Czech Republic. Biomass consumption in animal production and harvest loses were deducted from this calculation.

Havlicek M.,Vyzkumny ustav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasne zahradnictvi | Svoboda J.,Vyzkumny ustav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasne zahradnictvi | Dostal I.,Centrum dopravniho vyzkumu
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2013

The sugar industry developement was one of the major driving forces changing the land-use during the second half of the 19th century in the Czech country. It dominated especially in major agricultural areas such as the Labe lowlands, Central Bohemia, Central Moravia and South Moravia. The Hodonín district also belonged to these regions with strong and distinctive impact of sugar industry. In Hodonín district operated 9 sugar factories and their demand for sugar beet led to strong intensification of agriculture; new areas of arable land emerged in place of grassland and water surfaces. At the end of the 19th century, only 35 ha of water surfaces remained in the whole district. The expansion of the sugar industry was accompanied by development of the transport infrastructure as well. Some of the sugar factories were founded in close proximity to the first rail lines (Hodonín, Bzenec), the existence of a sugar factory was even the reason for opening a new railway station (Rohatec) and some others were the main motivation for the construction of regional railways (Ždánice, Hodonín, Kelčany).

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