Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy

Zbraslav, Czech Republic

Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy

Zbraslav, Czech Republic
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Dufkova J.K.,Mendel University in Brno | Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

The equation that expresses the influence of factors affecting soil aggregates breakdown, and thus wind erosion, originated from the results of laboratory simulations of soil aggregates breakdown due to low temperatures treatment, field measurements of air temperature and soil moisture, and statistical evaluation of gained outcomes. All the analyses, whether field or laboratory, were realized on three different soils from three different localities of the Bile Karpaty Mountains foothills - Ostrožska Nova Ves, Blatnice pod Svatym Antoninkem, and Sucha Loz. The statistically significant factors, influencing the soil aggregates breakdown, were determined using multiple regression analysis and stepwise regression. Soil moisture content at time of freezing was the most significant factor affecting soil aggregates breakdown, content of soil particles < 0.01 mm was the least significant one. Based on the results of laboratory and field research there was created a map of heavy-textured soils that are vulnerable to wind erosion.


Konecna J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Toman F.,Mendel University in Brno
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Land consolidations are an important instrument for implementation of erosion and flood control measures. Thanks to their poly-functional character, they also contribute to increase of ecological stability and aesthetic of landscape. Although the land consolidation process does not advance as quickly as requisite, it brings unquestionably positive results. One or more erosion and flood control measures are built in 17 % of cadastres with finished complex land consolidation. Land consolidation designs are supported by the state and the EU funds are used for the realization of protective and ecological measures. With the aim to evaluate real efficiency of implemented measures, research project QI92A012 has been started. This paper presents its method principles and particular results for one of the model cadastres - Lejčkov. Realized elements in Lejčkov were confronted with the plan of common facilities and critical analysis of the size, parameters, type and localization of elements was made with regard to their efficiency to keep the soil from surface erosion away in the long run, to decrease discharges and sediment transport in extreme precipitation events. We can state that erosion control measures in Lejčkov were designed and built well and they are suitable for the highland type of countryside.


Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny ustav melioraci a ochrany pudy | Konecna J.,Vyzkumny ustav melioraci a ochrany pudy | Kamenickova I.,Vysoke uceni technicke | Dumbrovsky M.,Vysoke uceni technicke
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2012

The subject of the article is to assess the application of PRP SOL subsidiary substance in conventionally treated (tillage) loamy soil and the impact on its hydro-physical properties. In the years 2008 and 2009, in the area Hlavnice in northern Moravia, experiments were carried out with the aim to examine the differences in the selected hydro-physical properties of soil treated with PRP SOL when growing row crops, namely poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. altissima). The survey consisted of measuring the soil infiltration capacity by water infiltration and of laboratory analysis of hydro-physical properties of samples taken at each measurement. The physical properties studied were: soil texture, reduced bulk density, porosity, pore distribution, aeration of topsoil and current water content. Repeated conventional tillage and application of PRP SOL did not demonstrate any improvement in soil physical properties (density, porosity, soil compaction, reduced water content in soil), necessary for creating favorable conditions for growth and improvement of the crops. Based on the infiltration rate, hydraulic conductivity of the soil (used to classify soil permeability) was determined. According to Kutílek (7), the area with application of PRP SOL belongs to Group III and at the time of monitoring showed slight permeability. In the year 2009 it decreased by about 1/2. The area without application of the PRP SOL belongs to Group IV, showing mean permeability and, within the two-year period, its value did not change significantly.


Kupka I.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Prknova H.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Holubik O.,Vyzkumny ustav melioraci a ochrany pudy | Tuzinsky M.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu | Year: 2015

The paper documents short-time effects of the application of materials based on the marine algae, both of fossil and recent origin, i.e. fossil alginite and recent formulations of the Bio-Algeen system. Alginite effects were studied at the research plot Hovorčovice, in the relatively arid and warm site in the Polabí region (the Elbe River valley, Czech Republic), at the agricultural land afforestation (by English oak, American red oak, Norway maple and Scots pine). Bio-Algeen system was tested at planting stock of Norway spruce production in a forest nursery. In the plantation experiment, significantly lower mortality was documented in the first year since planting, as well as significantly faster growth for broad-leaved species. In the nursery experiment, considerably more favorable development of the root system was detected as well as better parameters of the above-ground part of the planting stock. As the most effective, the combination of root dipping to Bio-Algeen water solution with granulate application on bed surface and also spraying of aboveground part of seedlings after transplanting were documented. Applications of studied material thus represent important contribution for quality stock production and plantation success on the forested site.


Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Jenickova H.,Pozemkovy Urad Usti Nad Orlici
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2011

Land consolidation, made pursuant to the Act No. 139/2002 Coll., have different variations and elaborateness according to specific conditions. The hilliness of the terrain, sloping, systems of transport connecting the plots, water in the landscape, the size of the plots and number of owners are the decisive factors for the preparation of the land consolidation. They influence the possibility of changes, decisions on the shapes of the plots, total difficulty in reaching the best situational layout and transport accessibility, reduction of erosion danger as well as incorporation of elements that increase the ecological stability of the plots of individual owners. The experience and knowledge collected during the implementation of land consolidation in the district of Ústí nad Orlicí provides the first opportunity to describe and evaluate the impact of specific conditions associated with the design and implementation of land consolidation in the different morphological, soil and climatic areas. The selected method was to compare some outputs of the land consolidation proposals as well as natural and other conditions of individual land consolidation from different cadastre territories of the Ústí nad Orlicí district, where the land consolidation has already been terminated or shall be terminated.


Filip R.,Pozemkovy Urad Usti Nad Orlici | Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010

The project of common facilities is a very important part of the process of land arrangement. It helps to ensure a lot of public functions, for example permeability of landscape, to preserve fertility of soil, to decrease surface outflow and prevention from floods, the protection and production of environment etc. It is essential to ensure sufficient land area to be able to suggest and carry out such plans of common facilities. It will be more and more difficult to ensure this plan due to the fact that the stateowned land is still decreasing. In the areas where the state-owned land still exists, it could be possible to reserve the part of these areas for this objective. This study analyses projects of common facilities in 33 cadastral areas and series of another variable values with the aim to find or to exclude different dependences. It could also help to estimate the extent of reserve areas. The most of examined values did not show any dependence but some of the tested values show the certain dependence.


Pavlik F.,Ustav vodniho hospodarstvi krajiny | Dumbrovsky M.,Ustav vodniho hospodarstvi krajiny | Podhrazska J.,Vyzkumny ustav melioraci a ochrany pudy | Konecna J.,Vyzkumny ustav melioraci a ochrany pudy
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Erosion processes in catchment areas cause serious ecologic and economic problems because of their negative consequences in terms of soil and water deterioration as well as for the environment as a whole. The soil particles washed down by water erosion are the biggest pollution factor due to their amount and volume. Sediments are the product of a selective process in which smaller and lighter particles are separated from eroded soil and taken away by water first. This means that the sediments contain a higher amount of organic, clay, and silt particles than the the original soils. Washed down sediments consist mainly of particles smaller than 0.05 mm (40-90% of the mixture). Other studies in the Czech Republic have focused on the assessment of soil erosion, based upon principles and parameters defined in the Universal Soil Loss Equation, but none of them has dealt with nutrient transport assessment as a consequence of water erosion. This paper presents a summary concerning the nutrient content in erosion sediment in a selected catchment area. Research work was conducted to identify and quantify the sediment load associated with nutrient transport especially from arable land on different soil types.


Duffkova R.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Zajicek A.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Novakova E.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy
Soil and Water Research | Year: 2011

Physical properties of soils have a significant influence on their water regime and should be considered when selecting suitable agricultural crops for particular sites, taking into account the crop productivity and its water requirements. Mean daily rates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) were obtained by collation of measured or otherwise estimated 10-min values for the years 2004, 2006 and 2009 for a partially tile-drained agricultural experimental catchment in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland (Czech Republic). ETa was measured using the Bowen ratio (β) and energy balance (BREB) method at four weather stations located on different soil types (Stagnosols, Cambisols) and terrain relief positions (defined with respect to the groundwater recharge and discharge zones) over different crops (cereals, oil rape and permanent grassland). A systematic influence of soil properties on the evapotranspiration rate was more pronounced during the periods of limited transpiration (soil drought, crop maturity), when the average daily ETa was significantly lower and the corresponding ? significantly higher over coarser-textured soils (shallow Haplic Cambisols), namely (year-ETa (mm/day)/β): 2004 - 1.75/1.66; 2006 - 2.44/0.93; 2009 - 2.60/0.81), than over finer-textured soils (Stagnic Cambisols and Haplic Stagnosols), namely: 2004 - 2.92/0.97; 2006 - 3.06/0.44; 2009 - 3.42/0.39). When the transpiration was not limited by soil water deficit, it acted as an equalizing factor smoothing down evapotranspiration from heterogeneous soil areas, whereby the effect of the soil physical properties was masked. With regard to soil water regime and evapotranspiration, the tile-drained Stagnic Cambisol lands behaved similarly as non-drained Haplic Cambisols. The effects of land use and of the terrain relief position could not be tracked independently, because the permanent grassland was situated in the wetter and texturally heavier parts of the catchment and the positions of the recharge/discharge zone coincided with the positions of texturally lighter/heavier soils, respectively.


Cechmankova J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Vacha R.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Skala J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy | Havelkova M.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci A Ochrany Pudy
Soil and Water Research | Year: 2011

The uptake of Pb, Cd, Zn and biomass production of the plants Brassica juncea v. Opaleska, Triticale hexaploides var. Gabo and Helianthus annuus v. Maritza were observed in a field (trial) and a pot experiments during four years. The plants were grown in monoculture variants and also in crop rotation. The field experiment (plots about1 × 1 m) was set up in heavily contaminated Haplic Fluvisol in the Litavka River alluvium. Pb, Cd, and Zn phytoextraction from the identical Haplic Fluvisol and Haplic Cambisol less contaminated mainly by atmospheric deposition was observed in the pot experiment. The application of 0.2 g EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)/kg and 1 g citric acid/kg into the soils of field (250 kg of soil/m2 plot) and pot (6 kg of soil/pot) experiments was realized. The comparison was accomplished between natural phytoextraction efficiency of B. juncea, H. annuus, and T. hexaploides. Crop rotation with and without chemical induction was tested. EDTA application had an immediate strong mobilization effect on the elements tested in both experiments and both soils. In the pot experiment, Pb, Cd, and Zn were more mobilized in Cambisol with initial lower mobile contents of elements in comparison with Fluvisol. The highest mobilization by EDTA was achieved for Pb. Strong Pb mobilization in Cambisol after EDTA addition resulted in a high Pb uptake and translocation from the roots of B. juncea into the shoots. EDTA application increased Pb phytoextraction by harvested B. juncea. Naturally grown H. annuus proved the high phytoextraction efficiency for Cd and Zn in the experiment. The assumed effect of the cultivation method, i.e. crop rotation vs. Monoculture, was not statistically proved in our experiments.


Soukup M.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci a Ochrany Pudy | Nechvatal M.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci a Ochrany Pudy | Novotny I.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci a Ochrany Pudy | Banyrova J.,Vyzkumny Ustav Melioraci a Ochrany Pudy
Rekreace a Ochrana Prirody - Sbornik Prispevku | Year: 2010

Nowadays, constructions of the sizeable warehouses on a massive scale, logistic parks of the Czech and foreigner investors accompanies the highways and speed roads building. These construction activities, located mostly in a new entrepreneur or industrial area, though they can support the economic progress including the supply in general, nevertheless they change, and often not to the better, the landscape as well as agricultural countryside. Daily agriculture, due to the changes in the land plans of the region affected by the construction activities aforementioned, loses dozens of hectares of the quality land with the best exposition. The carried out study of Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation shows this trend on the three selected localities (sub-catchments) in The Central Bohemian region. The method of the CN∗ graphs was applied to evaluate the water runoff value. The lost of the agricultural land, the changes in the agricultural landscape, and the soil permeability have been evaluated. The results of valuation have proved unambiguously the changes of the runoff in these catchments. The acceleration of the surface runoff, as a result of the large constructions along the high ways is dangerous, particularly in the periods of heavy rainfalls when the risk of flood is increasing. Destruction of the existing proportions in the landscape affects both the landscape structure and its character. The submitted study also analyses the influence of the sizeable constructions on the diminishing of the agricultural land recourses.

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