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Kaunas, Lithuania

Vytautas Magnus University ) is a public university in Kaunas, Lithuania. The university was founded in 1922 during the interwar period as an alternate national university. Initially it was known as the University of Lithuania, but in 1930 the university was renamed to Vytautas Magnus University, commemorating 500 years of death of Vytautas the Great, the Lithuanian ruler, well known for the nation's greatest historical expansion in the 15th century.It is one of the leading universities of Lithuania, has now about 8,700 students, including Master and Ph.D. candidates. There are slightly fewer than 1000 employees, including approximately 70 professors. Wikipedia.

Grazuleviciene R.,Vytautas Magnus University
Environmental health : a global access science source | Year: 2014

The aims of this study were to explore associations of the distance and use of urban green spaces with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and its risk factors, and to evaluate the impact of the accessibility and use of green spaces on the incidence of CVD among the population of Kaunas city (Lithuania). We present the results from a Kaunas cohort study on the access to and use of green spaces, the association with cardiovascular risk factors and other health-related variables, and the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. A random sample of 5,112 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. During the mean 4.41 years follow-up, there were 83 deaths from CVD and 364 non-fatal cases of CVD among persons free from CHD and stroke at the baseline survey. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for data analysis. We found that the distance from people's residence to green spaces was not related to the prevalence of health-related variables. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were significantly lower among park users than among non-users. During the follow up, an increased risk of non-fatal and fatal CVD combined was observed for those who lived ≥629.61 m from green spaces (3rd tertile of distance to green space) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36), and the risk for non-fatal CVD-for those who lived ≥347.81 m (2nd and 3rd tertile) and were not park users (HR = 1.66) as compared to men and women who lived 347.8 m or less (1st tertile) from green space. Men living further away from parks (3rd tertile) had a higher risk of non-fatal and fatal CVD combined, compared to those living nearby (1st tertile) (HR = 1.51). Compared to park users living nearby (1st tertile), a statistically significantly increased risk of non-fatal CVD was observed for women who were not park users and living farther away from parks (2nd and 3rd tertile) (HR = 2.78). Our analysis suggests public health policies aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles in urban settings could produce cardiovascular benefits. Source

Stasiulis A.,Vytautas Magnus University
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) | Year: 2010

The objective of the study was to assess changes in body composition, blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in 18-24-year-old women during the period of two-month aerobic cycling training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Young, healthy, nonsmoking women (n=19) volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided in two groups: experimental (E, n=10) and control (C, n=9). The subjects of group E exercised 3 times a week with intensity of the first ventilatory threshold and duration of 60 min. The group C did not exercise regularly over a two-month period of the experiment. The subjects of group E were tested before and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of the experiment. The participants of group C were tested twice with an eight-week interval. RESULTS: Body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, and triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-ch) concentration increased after the 8-week training program in the experimental group (P<0.05). Blood total cholesterol (Tch) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-ch) concentrations did not change significantly. Body weight and body mass index started to decrease after 2 weeks of the experiment, but significant changes were observed only after 6 and 8 weeks. Body fat mass was significantly decreased after 2 and 8 weeks of aerobic training. A significant increase in HDL-ch concentration was observed after 4, 6, and 8 weeks. A significant decrease in TAG concentration was observed after 2-week training. No significant changes in all the parameters except TAG (it was slightly increased) were seen in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The two-month aerobic cycling training (within VT1, 60-min duration, three times a week) may induce significant changes in the parameters of body composition--body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, and blood lipids--in young women. The following significant changes were observed: TAG level decreased after 2 weeks, body mass and body mass index decreased after 6 weeks, body fat mass decreased and HDL-ch level increased after 8 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake increased after 4 weeks. Source

Saulis G.,Vytautas Magnus University
Food Engineering Reviews | Year: 2010

Using of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for killing of microorganisms in liquid foods is a promising new nonthermal food processing and preservation technology. However, to implement and optimize this technology, a good understanding of the actual mechanisms that govern microbial inactivation by this technique is required. Here, fundamentals of cell electroporation, which is considered as underlying phenomenon of food processing technology, are discussed. The whole process of the cell electroporation (food processing) by PEF is divided into the following four main stages: (1) building the transmembrane potential up by the applied external electric field, (2) creation of small metastable hydrophilic pores, when the transmembrane potential has been built up; (3) evolution of the pore population- the change in the number and/or sizes of pores- during an electric treatment; and (4) post-treatment stage consisting of the processes that take place after the electric treatment (leakage of intracellular compounds, pore shrinkage and disappearance, etc.). The current knowledge of the processes taking place during each of the above stages as well as the factors influencing them is discussed. Theoretical considerations are illustrated with the experimental data available. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Source

Kaskoniene V.,Vytautas Magnus University | Venskutonis P.R.,Kaunas University of Technology
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

In view of the expanding global market, authentication and characterization of botanical and geographic origins of honey has become a more important task than ever. Many studies have been performed with the aim of evaluating the possibilities to characterize honey samples of various origins by using specific chemical marker compounds. These have been identified and quantified for numerous honey samples. This article is aimed at summarizing the studies carried out during the last 2 decades. An attempt is made to find useful chemical markers for unifloral honey, based on the analysis of the compositional data of honey volatile compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and some other constituents. This review demonstrates that currently it is rather difficult to find reliable chemical markers for the discrimination of honey collected from different floral sources because the chemical composition of honey also depends on several other factors, such as geographic origin, collection season, mode of storage, bee species, and even interactions between chemical compounds and enzymes in the honey. Therefore, some publications from the reviewed period have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin. In addition, the results of chemical analyses of honey constituents may also depend on sample preparation and analysis techniques. Consequently, a more reliable characterization of honey requires the determination of more than a single class of compounds, preferably in combination with modern data management of the results, for example, principal component analysis or cluster analysis. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

The article analyses the practical problems of the law enforcement of the retail trade of alcohol. It is based on the data of scientific literature, legal acts, and 15 semi-structured qualitative interviews with the experts who conduct the supervision and control of the retail trade of alcohol at the Drug, Tobacco and Alcohol Control Department, the State Food and Veterinary Service, police commissariats, and municipal administration licensing departments. The research concludes that the reactive control is conditioned by the residents' complaints about the harm caused by illegal trade and abuse of alcohol. The complaints that the holders of alcohol retail trade licenses violate the technical requirements included in the license, e.g. for the storage location or the type of alcohol sold, are very rare. The efficiency of reactive supervision and control is hindered by the undefined amount of alcohol consumed in the location and the unrestricted carrying of alcohol in an open container, the illegitimacy of the method of secret shopper, and the restrictions imposed on inspections checking for illegal alcohol. Meanwhile, the proactive control is still emerging, because the information is being gathered and inspections are planned, but there are no clear goals associated with damage control or evaluation of inspection efficiency. Source

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