Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute

Moscow, Russia

Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute

Moscow, Russia
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Savin I.Yu.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
Sovremennye Problemy Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli iz Kosmosa | Year: 2016

The modern specifics of the use of satellite data for soil mapping was analyzed. At present, despite that remote sensing methods have long been developed, the satellite data is still quite rarely used in soil science for compilation of soil maps. Some researchers use satellite color composites as the background as well as a data source for analysis of relief conditions of a territory for soil mapping. Others try to develop methods for automated analysis of satellite images. The use of different methods to a large extent is determined by the scale of maps and geographical features of the research area. In most cases, multispectral data of high and very high spatial resolution are used. Radar satellite imagery and hyperspectral data are used for soil mapping only in some cases. In contrast to previous decades, now more research is aimed on mapping of the individual properties of the surface soil horizon, rather than for compilation of soil maps. This is due to the fact that the properties of the upper soil horizon are not always related to their classification status, which have to be shown on soil maps.

Savin I.Yu.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute | Dokukin P.A.,Agrarian Technological Institute of RUDN | Verniuk Yu.I.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute | Zhogolev A.V.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
Sovremennye Problemy Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli iz Kosmosa | Year: 2017

A comparison of field data on aboveground barley biomass on a certain plots in Tula Region with NDVI MODIS values presented by the internet service VEGA was conducted. The crop fractions, as well as total weight of crop and weeds aboveground biomass, were used as the indicators of crop status. As a result of investigations it was found that NDVI in the middle of the growing season is predefined by the combined effect of cultivated plants and weeds, and at the end of the season the role of weeds becomes predominant. Theoretically, NDVI for this period can be used as a proxy of general weedness of crops. In the case of NDVI usage as a predictor of crop yields it seems better to use index values, received during the first half of the vegetative season. Based on specifics of crop phenology and physiology, one can conclude that the same results can be received not only for barley, but also for wheat, triticale, and rye. The results obtained are valid only for the areas with the same agro-technologies and crop rotations. They should be considered when using the VEGA data for monitoring crop status at the level of individual fields and when predicting crop yield.

Shuyskaya E.,RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology | Toderich K.,International Center for Biosaline Agriculture | Gismatullina L.,Samarkand State University | Rajabov T.,Samarkand State University | Khohlov S.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2017

Desert annual plant species are valuable pasture forage and sources for restoration of degraded pastures. Examining the impact of environmental stresses on genetic diversity and population structure can identify species populations suitable for habitat restoration. We examined allozyme diversity and population structure of two annual species, halo-xerophyte Salsola incanescens and xero-halophyte S. paulsenii, in association with the type of desert plant community, which reflects the water-salt conditions in the soil. We sampled 19 wild populations in 15 xerophytic, xero-halophytic and halophytic plant communities in Kyzylkum desert (Uzbekistan, Central Asia). The species studied had low genetic variability (P95 = 0.05-0.10,HO = 0.008-0.025) and high population structure (FST = 0.585-0.739). Wright's fixation index indicated deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with a deficit of heterozygotes (FIS = 0.79) in S. incanescens populations. No evidence of isolation by distance was found for the species studied (Mantel's r = 0.02-0.04). Estimates of genetic variability in populations from xerophytic and halophytic plant communities differed significantly (2- to 10-fold, P < 0.05) for both species. Moreover, allele-habitat associations at the GOT and Me loci were found in both species. Decreased levels of within-population variability were found in both species in halophytic communities. In sub-optimal habitats, the decline in genetic differentiation and increase in gene flow were found for bothS. incanescens (xerophytic plant communities) and S. paulsenii (halophytic communities). Our results indicate that genetic diversity rather than population differentiation is affected by the habitat type. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Prudnikova E.Yu.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute | Savin I.Yu.,Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
Sovremennye Problemy Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli iz Kosmosa | Year: 2017

Radar data have great potential for soil studies. However, their interpretation is complicated due to presence of speckle. Using Saratov Povolzhye as a test region we analyzed the performance of adaptive (Gamma Map, Refined Lee, Frost) and non-adaptive (Median) filtering techniques in speckle suppression, preservation of original information and assessed their influence on the possibility of soil features interpretation using Radarsart-2 data. Gamma Map filter was founded to be more effective in speckle suppression for vertical-horizontal and vertical polarizations regardless of the soil surface conditions at the time of image acquisition. Applying this filter with 5×5 window size allowed modelling of organic matter content and particles 0.05-0.01 mm in size with overall accuracy of over 70% for open soil surface and 60% for covered surface. Lower filtering window size (3×3) appeared to be more suitable for mapping 1-0.25 mm sized particles and slope when soil surface is open. In case of granulometric composition and parent material, the best results for the test region were obtained when applying Refined Lee filter for vertical-horizontal polarization and open surface with overall accuracy of the models of 63-65% of the models. The considered results are applicable only for the studied radar data, acquisition time and test region. At the same time, the findings can be used to organize remote monitoring of properties of soil surface layer of the test fields which is important for land use.

Kirillova N.P.,Moscow State University | Kemp D.B.,University of Aberdeen | Artemyeva Z.S.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2017

Colour is an important physical property in the characterization of soil type and the description of soil profiles. Quantitative data from spectrophotometers and colorimeters have been used in soil research for this purpose, but semi-quantitative Munsell colour description remains the main method of soil colour evaluation. Low-cost digital devices (cameras and scanners) could largely replace the semi-quantitative assessment of colour by Munsell charts if such devices can be calibrated colorimetrically to provide accurate and reproducible data. Robust application of such tools, however, requires standardized light sources, which precludes the use of digital cameras as viable devices for use in the field. Flatbed scanners, on the other hand, enable 2-D imaging by a contact method under consistent lighting conditions. Power can be provided to such scanners through a USB port by a laptop computer, so they can be used as viable devices in the field. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using flatbed scanners to derive colorimetrically accurate images and data from a set of 161 soil samples. The efficacy of our approach was tested with two low-cost scanners, and included analysis of two commercial colour charts, six printed colour charts and three editions of the Munsell Soil Colour chart to assess the optimum methods of colorimetric calibration. For both scanners tested, we found that accurate colour characterization could be achieved for > 95% of the soil samples studied (i.e. with colour errors barely perceptible by the human eye). These results illustrate the merit and efficacy of this rapid and low-cost approach for soil colour evaluation. Highlights: Can soil colour be measured accurately with commercial scanners? Scanners can replace semi-quantitative Munsell chart comparison or spectrophotometers. With careful calibration, scanners can be used to measure soil colour. Colour can be measured with an accuracy close to that achievable with spectrophotometers. © 2017 British Society of Soil Science

Rembold F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Atzberger C.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Savin I.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute | Rojas O.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

Low resolution satellite imagery has been extensively used for crop monitoring and yield forecasting for over 30 years and plays an important role in a growing number of operational systems. The combination of their high temporal frequency with their extended geographical coverage generally associated with low costs per area unit makes these images a convenient choice at both national and regional scales. Several qualitative and quantitative approaches can be clearly distinguished, going from the use of low resolution satellite imagery as the main predictor of final crop yield to complex crop growth models where remote sensing-derived indicators play different roles, depending on the nature of the model and on the availability of data measured on the ground. Vegetation performance anomaly detection with low resolution images continues to be a fundamental component of early warning and drought monitoring systems at the regional scale. For applications at more detailed scales, the limitations created by the mixed nature of low resolution pixels are being progressively reduced by the higher resolution offered by new sensors, while the continuity of existing systems remains crucial for ensuring the availability of long time series as needed by the majority of the yield prediction methods used today. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Korobova E.M.,RAS Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry | Linnik V.G.,RAS Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry | Chizhikova N.P.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute | Alekseeva T.N.,RAS Shirshov Institute of Oceanology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2014

A detailed study of soil fractions of different sizes and their mineralogy was performed to explain the distributions of 137Cs discharged by the Krasnoyarsk MCC in alluvial soils of the near and remote impact zones. Radionuclides were shown to concentrate in fine fractions enriched in hydromica and smectite. However, in natural conditions the dominant size fractions responsible for 137Cs accumulation appeared to belong to sizes from silt (0.010mm) to clay (0.001mm). Ultrasonic treatment helped to reveal that this occurs due to natural water-resistant aggregation of smaller particles. Aggregation of fine particles and a considerable contribution of coarse fractions to the total sample mass lead to a smoothing effect in the distribution of 137Cs inventory in different fraction masses constituting the soil layer. However, clay fractions <0.001mm, and aggregates sized 0.05(0.63)-0.010mm and 0.25-0.125mm appear to dominate in radiocesium storage in the studied layers supporting the contention that these fractions play a major role in the distribution and accumulation of technogenic contamination in the floodplain soils of the region.Mineralogical analysis of the samples proved that floodplain sediments are able to fixate cesium due to the presence of smectites, illite, feldspars and micas in fines and coarser fractions. Abundant feldspar transformed to sericite can also contribute to cesium sedimentation. The particle interval from <. 0.001 to 0.010. mm would appear to be crucial for contamination levels of river sediments and floodplain soils as they are comparatively resistant in aqueous solution and prone to easy transport by the river. Therefore the alluvial soil fractions of these sizes are of prime importance in the studies of technogenic contamination of river systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Stathakis D.,University of Thessaly | Perakis K.,University of Thessaly | Savin I.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Urban populations are expanding rapidly and so are cities. Remote sensing offers a convenient means of monitoring this expansion as it covers a period of 40 years in the case of the LANDSAT satellite. In some parts of the globe, this is probably the only viable means of monitoring due to the lack of other types of data. In order to monitor expansion, first, urban land has to be separated from other land-cover types. Although this can be done by standard classification processes, it is much more efficient to establish an urban index (UI) analogous to the widely used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for vegetation. Existing efforts to establish such a UI are reviewed and compared in a common context. Following this, a novel, more efficient UI is introduced. The calculation of the new index is straightforward, based on combining the NDVI with the normalized difference built-up index. The results are promising as the index can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of excessive bare land. The proposed method is evaluated on two test sites selected in different LANDSAT scenes. The new index is valid only for sensors with the same bands as those of LANDSAT. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Savin I.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute | Stolbovoy V.,Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
GlobalSoilMap: Basis of the Global Spatial Soil Information System - Proceedings of the 1st GlobalSoilMap Conference | Year: 2014

Newly established Unified National Register of the Soil Resources of Russia (UNRSR) contains four parts: Soils, Soil resources, Soil-ecological regionalization and Soil data. Soil part originates from digitized version of 1:2 500 000 soil map of Russia. It contains 206 soil typological units, 70 soil complex's, a variety of textural classes which all together describes nearly 26 000 soil mapping unites. Soil resources describe soils of the administrative regions or Subjects of Russian Federation. Further data collection will be intensified in the Subjects of RF. The introduction of the UNRSR into the GlobalSoilMap project will be done by means of soil correlation. Due to limited application of the WRB globally, we propose to apply the US Soil Taxonomy. Heterogeneity of soil sampling is another issue which we have to be discussed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.

PubMed | Helmholtz Center Munich, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, All Russia Research Institute of Arable Farming and Soil Erosion Control and Vv Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

The quality, stability and availability of organic carbon (OC) in soil organic matter (SOM) can vary widely between differently managed ecosystems. Several approaches have been developed for isolating SOM fractions to examine their ecological roles, but links between the bioavailability of the OC of size-density fractions and soil microbial communities have not been previously explored. Thus, in the presented laboratory study we investigated the potential bioavailability of OC and the structure of associated microbial communities in different particle-size and density fractions of SOM. For this we used samples from four grassland ecosystems with contrasting management intensity regimes and two soil types: a Haplic Cambisol and a typical Chernozem. A combined size-density fractionation protocol was applied to separate clay-associated SOM fractions (CF1, <1 m; CF2, 1-2 m) from light SOM fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)). These fractions were used as carbon sources in a respiration experiment to determine their potential bioavailability. Measured CO2-release was used as an index of substrate accessibility and linked to the soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Several key factors controlling decomposition processes, and thus the potential bioavailability of OC, were identified: management intensity and the plant community composition of the grasslands (both of which affect the chemical composition and turnover of OC) and specific properties of individual SOM fractions. The PLFA patterns highlighted differences in the composition of microbial communities associated with the examined grasslands, and SOM fractions, providing the first broad insights into their active microbial communities. From observed interactions between abiotic and biotic factors affecting the decomposition of SOM fractions we demonstrate that increasing management intensity could enhance the potential bioavailability of OC, not only in the active and intermediate SOM pools, but also in the passive pool.

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