Burdikova Z.,Teagasc |
Svindrych Z.,University of Virginia |
Hickey C.,Teagasc |
Wilkinson M.G.,University of Limerick |
And 6 more authors.
Dairy Science and Technology | Year: 2015
Despite considerable advances in confocal microscopy and related technologies, advanced light microscopy techniques have been rarely used to study the microstructure of cheese matrices. Here, we demonstrate the potential of advanced microscopic techniques, namely fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), confocal Raman spectroscopy and non-linear microscopy (two-photon excitation and second harmonic generation microscopy), to study localized physicochemical properties of cheese matrices. These methods allow for precise localization of individual chemical components and help to determine their spatial organization in three dimensions. We discuss both fluorescent labelling and label-free methods that provide valuable information about the localized environment. Overall, these new technologies will enable a greater understanding of the influence of manufacturing processes on cheese quality and consistency. © 2015, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.
Sonriera N.,VUT |
Kritzinger E.,University of South Africa |
Loock M.,University of South Africa
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2012
In South Africa, there is a lack of structure or guidance for schools on how to deal with cyber threats. There are no clear procedures that are consistently followed by schools, governing boards and educators, and the cyber threat process is not widely known and understood by educators, learners and their parents/guardians. As a result, many learners remain vulnerable to the negative effects of cyber threats. An example is a Krugersdorp High School girl who was attacked after a cyberthreat ordeal, (The Star 9 February 2012:1). In this paper a framework is therefore proposed that schools can implement to assist learners with cyber threat incidents. The methodology that will be followed in this article is, firstly, to determine from the literature how a victim of cyber threat can be helped, secondly, to develop an incident handling structure that will assist learners in reporting cyber threats, and thirdly, to develop a framework which will address the lack of structure, guidance or procedures when dealing with cyber threats in schools. The gap which exists now deters learners from reporting cyber threat incidents. To fill this gap, the authors propose an incident handling structure which will assist learners to report and receive protection against online threats. It is hoped that, in the end, learners will know what to do when they are threatened online. In addition, cyber threat policies and procedures are proposed to protect and inform learners and their parents about cyber threats. These procedures collate, outline legislation and the policies of the Department of Basic Education. The aim is to give schools rights and responsibilities in addressing cyber threat incidents. Practical considerations such as time and costs limit the study to a sample of schools in South Africa. The framework for intervention in cyber threat incidents as part of school policies in South Africa is merely a proposal to the rightful stake holders, since policies for schools are determined by the Department of Basic Education which the authors are not members of. Copyright 2012 ACM.