Goossens M.C.M.,Free University of Brussels |
De Greve J.,VUB
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010
Behavioural changes are an important partner in the fight against cancer (primary prevention or the choice to participate in secondary prevention). To make such behavioural changes, people need to have a correct assessment of their own risk, which is often underestimated or overestimated. These risk estimates depend, among others, on the calculation method that is used. Currently, the method that is used most often is 'indirect cumulative risk' (ICR). We discuss several drawbacks of using ICR in individual counselling and therefore use an alternative method. In this alternative (life table method) we calculated 10-year risks for a whole range of cancers as a function of the current age and risk profile, while taking into account other causes of death. These estimates can easily be used to give an individualized assessment of the risk of cancer. Regardless of the risk estimation method used, the risk needs to be broken down for 'risk factors'. If only the risk for an average person of the population is given, this means a small overestimation for the non-risk group, but a significant underestimation for the at-risk group. When we compare the life table risk as a function of risk factors to the more commonly used ICR, large differences are found, especially in prostate, breast and lung carcinomas. The life table method, although it has certain limitations, has advantages over the ICR method for individual counselling. To our knowledge this is the first overview in which 10-year risks as a function of the current risk profile are given for multiple cancers. The calculated risks are primarily intended to better inform people who are considering preventive measures. For example, for a 40-year-old woman without familial risk who is considering the pros and cons of breast cancer mammographic screening, it is more interesting to know that she has a 0.7% chance of getting breast cancer in the next 5 years, rather than being told that 11% of women get breast cancer during their lives (ICR 0-74). Current smokers can now be given absolute risk reduction estimates of smoking cessation. To keep the life table risk estimates up to date, they must be repeated every couple of years, using up-to-date incidence and mortality data. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source
Sarkozy A.,Heart Rhythm Management Center |
Sorgente A.,Heart Rhythm Management Center |
Boussy T.,Heart Rhythm Management Center |
Casado R.,Heart Rhythm Management Center |
And 8 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2011
Aims We sought to investigate the value of a family history of sudden death (SD) in Brugada syndrome (BS). Methods and resultsTwo hundred and eighty consecutive patients (mean age: 41 ± 18 years, 168 males) with diagnostic type I Brugada ECG pattern were included. Sudden death occurred in 69 (43) of 157 families. One hundred and ten SDs were analysed. During follow-up VF (ventricular fibrillation) or SD-free survival rate was not different between patients with or without a family history of SD of a first-degree relative, between patients with or without a family history of multiple SD of a first-degree relative at any age and between patients with or without a family history of SD in first-degree relatives ≤35 years. One patient had family history of SD of two first-degree relative ≤35 years with arrhythmic event during follow-up. In univariate analysis male gender (P 0.01), aborted SD (P < 0.001), syncope (P 0.04), spontaneous type I ECG (P < 0.001), and inducibility during electrophysiological (EP) study (P < 0.001) were associated with worse prognosis. The absence of syncope, aborted SD, spontaneous type I ECG, and inducibility during EP study was associated with a significantly better prognosis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Family history of SD is not predictive for future arrhythmic events even if considering only SD in first-degree relatives or SD in first-degree relatives at a young age. The absence of syncope, aborted SD, spontaneous type I ECG, and inducibility during EP study is associated with a good five-year prognosis. © 2011 The Author. Source
Spine | Year: 2016
STUDY DESIGN.: A cross-sectional observational study of 3D cervical kinematics in 41 chronic neck pain patients (CNPʼs) and 156 asymptomatic controls. OBJECTIVE.: The objective was to investigate 3D cervical kinematics by analyzing and comparing quantitative and qualitative parameters in healthy subjects and CNPʼs. Furthermore subgroups were formed to explore the influence of pain-location on cervical kinematics. The possible correlation of kinematic parameters with the degree of functional disability was examined as well. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: In patients with chronic neck pain a clear pathological cause is frequently not identifiable. Therefore, the need to assess neck pain with a broader view than structure or anatomical based divergences is desirable. METHODS.: Movements of the cervical spine were registered using an electromagnetic tracking system. Quantitative and qualitative kinematics were analyzed for active axial rotation, lateral bending and flexion-extension motion components. RESULTS.: During lateral bending the range of the main motion demonstrated significant higher values (p?=?0.001) in the controls (mean: 68.67°?±?15.17°) compared to patients (mean: 59.28°±15.41°). Significant differences were demonstrated between subgroups for several kinematic parameters (p?0.05). Although differences were predominantly recorded between the “symmetrical” and “asymmetrical” pain group, some parameters also distinguished subgroups from controls. On average the symmetrical group showed significant less harmonic movement patterns, expressed by qualitative parameters, in comparison with the “asymmetrical” group and controls. Furthermore, the “asymmetrical” group showed significant lower scores on quantitative parameters compared to the “symmetrical” group and controls. The degree of functional disability correlated moderately with changes in qualitative parameters. CONCLUSION.: In this study chronic neck pain patients with a symmetrical pain pattern showed significant poorer quality of movement while those with asymmetrical pain showed a significantly reduction in quantitative measures. Subgrouping of neck patients based on pain location may be of help for further research and clinics.Level of evidence: 4 Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source
Piron R.,VIB |
Piron R.,Ghent University |
De Koker S.,Ghent University |
De Paepe A.,VIB |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) 'Fragment crystallizable' (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs. © 2014 Piron et al. Source
At this week's IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC2016), nanoelectronics research center imec and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) presented a self-calibrated high-speed (10Mbits/s) phase modulator achieving an excellent Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of -37dB at 10.25 GHz. The modulator is based on a l analog fractional subsampling PLL featuring a world leading -246.6dB Figure of Merit (FOM). It is an attractive solution for phase modulation in highly efficient polar transmitters. Radio frequency synthesizers are ubiquitous building blocks of today's ever growing networking solutions. Whether for high throughput applications like LTE-Advanced or for sub-mW Internet-of-Things nodes, the phase noise of the RF synthesizer sets a limit to the achievable data rate or to the total radio power consumption, as one can often be traded for the other. On top of that, for efficient spectrum usage, the new standards typically involve higher order modulation schemes. Polar transmitters, using efficient nonlinear power amplifiers might be a good option, but they need highly accurate phase modulators. The PLL is built around an analog-based subsampling high-gain phase detector, which enables low-noise operation. The advanced 28nm CMOS technology is exploited to enhance its performance through innovative built-in background self-calibration that corrects all non-idealities of the analog building blocks. Together, these technique ensure a state-of-the-art noise performance resulting in only 176fsec jitter. Similarly, digital phase modulation is implemented, with quasi-ideal performance thanks to background calibration of all non-idealities. Combined with the intrinsic low noise of the PLL, a record EVM better than -37dB is achieved at 10GHz carrier. These results were presented at ISSCC2016 as paper 9.7 in the High performance wireless session: "N. Markulic et al.; A Self-Calibrated 10Mb/s Phase Modulator with -37.4dB EVM Based on a 10.1-to-12.4GHz, -246.6dB-FOM, Fractional-N Subsampling PLL."