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Metropolitan Government of Nashville-Davidson (balance), TN, United States

Ocak S.,Vanderbilt University | Ocak S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Ocak S.,Cliniques Universitaires Mont Godinne | Pedchenko T.V.,Vanderbilt University | And 12 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression is downregulated in lung cancer, but its implications in lung tumourigenesis remain unknown. We hypothesised that loss of pIgR expression occurs early, and is associated with cell proliferation and poor prognosis. pIgR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in airways of patients with normalmucosa, pre-invasive lesions and invasive lesions, and correlated with clinical outcomes. 16-HBE and A549 cells stably transfected with pIgR were tested for proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Immunostaining was strong in normal epithelium, but severely reduced in pre-invasive lesions and most lung cancers. Persistent expression was associated with younger age and adenocarcinoma subtype but not survival. pIgR overexpression significantly reduced A549 and 16-HBE proliferation. Growth inhibition was not due to cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but we observed altered expression of genes encoding for membrane proteins, including NOTCH3. Interestingly, NOTCH3 expression was inversely correlated with pIgR expression in cell lines and tissues. pIgR expression was lost in most lung cancers and pre-invasive bronchial lesions, suggesting that pIgR downregulation is an early event in lung tumourigenesis. pIgR overexpression in A549 and 16-HBE cells inhibited proliferation. Future investigations are required to determine the mechanisms by which pIgR contributes to cell proliferation. Copyright©ERS 2012.

Faucher C.,University of Montreal | Dufour-Guindon M.-P.,VU | Lapointe G.,Clinique doptometrie Lapointe et Qualizza | Gagnon R.,University of Montreal | Charlin B.,University of Montreal
Clinical and Experimental Optometry | Year: 2016

Background: Clinical reasoning is central to any health profession but its development among learners is difficult to assess. Over the last few decades, the script concordance test (SCT) has been developed to solve this dilemma and has been used in many health professions; however, no study has been published on the use of the script concordance test in optometry. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a script concordance test for the field of optometry. Methods: A 101-question script concordance test (27 short clinical scenarios) was developed and administered online to a convenience sample of 23second-year and 19 fourth-year students of optometry. It was also administered to a reference panel of 12 experienced optometrists to develop the scoring key. An item-total correlation was calculated for each question. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to evaluate the script concordance test reliability and a t-test compared the two groups. Results: A final 77-question script concordance test was created by eliminating questions with low item-total correlation. Cronbach's alpha for this optimised 77-question script concordance test was 0.80. A group comparison revealed that the second-year students' scores (n=23; mean score=66.4±7.87 per cent) were statistically lower (t=-4.141; p<0.001) than those of the fourth-year students (n=19; mean score=75.5±5.97 per cent). Conclusion: The online script concordance test developed for this study was found to be both reliable and capable of discriminating between second- and fourth-year optometric students. These results demonstrate that the script concordance test may be considered as a new tool in the optometric educators' assessment arsenal. Further studies will be needed to cover additional levels of professional development. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

De Boer A.H.,Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau | Oudijk D.,Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau | Van Groenou M.I.B.,VU | Timmermans J.M.,Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau
Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie | Year: 2012

An 8-item scale has been developed to measure positive experiences by informal caregivers, the Positive Experiences Scale (PES). The PES is a unidimensional hierarchical Mokkenscale which varies from intrinsic satisfaction and relational enhancement to improvement of competence and social enhancement. The scale has a satisfactory Loevinger's H-value (0.37) and reliability (0.74). Furthermore, satisfying H-values are found for large groups of informal caregivers, such as carers for the elderly, the chronically ill, partners, parents and people who live in a care facility. For informal caregivers of people with dementia or mental impairments, two items do not uphold ('I received appreciation for the care I've been giving' and 'the help brought me and my family and friends closer together'. For these groups a 6-item scale is advised. Solely for informal caregivers of people with psychological impairments, the scale as a whole does not uphold. Further research will have to determine how these caregivers derive positive experiences from caregiving. The PES is recommended because of its psychometric qualities and its usefulness in different populations of informal caregivers.

Vu | Date: 2005-07-13

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Vu | Date: 2013-04-17

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