Andersson H.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Hammitt J.K.,Harvard University |
Hammitt J.K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Lindberg G.,VTI |
Sundstrom K.,AgriFood Economics Center
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2013
Stated preference (SP) surveys attempt to obtain monetary values for non-market goods that reflect individuals' "true" preferences. Numerous empirical studies suggest that monetary values from SP studies are sensitive to survey design and so may not reflect respondents' true preferences. This study examines the effect of time framing on respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for car safety. We explore how WTP per unit risk reduction depends on the time period over which respondents pay and face reduced risk in a theoretical model and by using data from a Swedish contingent valuation survey. Our theoretical model predicts the effect to be nontrivial in many scenarios used in empirical applications. In our empirical analysis we examine the sensitivity of WTP to an annual and a monthly scenario. Our theoretical model predicts the effect from the time framing to be negligible, but the empirical estimates from the annual scenario are about 70 % higher than estimates from the monthly scenario. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy | Year: 2013
By combining standardised calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary estimates from well-established evaluation methods, this study outlines a model to estimate the short-run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise that is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and technologies. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that estimates are insensitive to traffic volume, sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and sensitive to the monetary values used. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC. Financial support from Banverket, VTI, and the Centre for Transport Studies, Stockholm, is gratefully acknowledged.
Jonsson L.,Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute |
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2010
This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.
Kozic M.,VTI |
Ristic S.,Institut Gosa
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering | Year: 2010
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) flow obtained by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations served for the design of 2D thrust vectoring nozzles. Thrust is directed by means of deflectors with different heights placed at the end of the bottom wall. The nozzle was manufactured and tested. A series of experiments were performed in a trisonic wind tunnel. The experimental results obtained by optical methods and pressure measurements are compared with the results of a numerical flow simulation. Differences were observed in pressure distribution along the bottom wall. More detailed research revealed that the real flow considerably deviated from the 2D flow. The primary goal of this work is to provide applicability of the used numerical methods in nozzle design. The results show that RANS 2D simulations with turbulent models based on the Boussinesq approximation are not able to predict reliable enough results for 2D thrust vectoring nozzles.
Folkeson L.,Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute |
Antonson H.,VTI |
Helldin J.O.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013
Cumulative effects (CE) still receive little attention in the Swedish processes for road and railway infrastructure planning. This article seeks to analyse how CE are treated by professionals engaged in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment of roads and railways. The aims were (i) to analyse views of CE held by professionals with long planning practice, (ii) to analyse how planners experience the handling of CE in their daily planning practice, and (iii) to identify means to strengthen the assessment of CE in the Swedish road and railway planning process. The study was performed as an international literature review and two focus groups among planners. Discussions revealed little knowledge and use of the term CE, partly due to lack of incentives and guidance. Little mention was made of research. Participants said EIA work was much directed towards the environmental compartments/aspects listed in the Environmental Code. Environmental impacts designated as significant demanded much work. The discussions revealed a need of more collaboration between various actors in EIA and of novel methods of public participation. Spatial and temporal scales were chosen with little concern of CE. The European Landscape Convention was hoped to enhance CE treatment in EIA. Improvement suggestions include (i) use of the term CE in regulatory instruments, (ii) development of the interplay between CEA practice and CE science, (iii) co-ordination of management of baseline, monitoring and follow-up data, (iv) assessment of CE in relation to project-specific environmental objectives, developed in a bottom-up process, (v) inclusion of CE, within and across environmental aspects, in determining the significance of environmental impacts, (vi) advice on CE treatment in EIA guidelines, (vii) requirement of CE assessment in EIA procurement, (viii) strengthened generalist competence in environmental assessment, and (ix) enhancing skills in stepwise analyses and indirect environmental effects. Research needs include adaptation of the Swedish EIA procedure to international state of the art, knowledge support of quantification in CE assessment, and development of innovative means of public consultation in transport infrastructure planning. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.