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Biswal S.,Vss Medical College And Hospital
Biomedical Journal | Year: 2014

Increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among in-patients is associated with significant increased mortality, morbidity, and stay in the hospitals. This has occurred despite heightened awareness of the risks of broad-spectrum antibiotics, overall reduction in antibiotic use and increased focus on hospital hygiene. So though the main risk factor for CDI is use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a novel potential contributor has been implicated, because of their ability to substantially reduce gastric acid secretion which is an important host defense mechanism in suppressing the ingested C. difficile or its spores. Antibiotic disruption of the normal intestinal flora and reduced gastric acidity have been suggested as the risk factors for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Based on such assumptions the use of PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of CDAD. While a definite association between PPI use and CDAD has not yet been confirmed, the possibility and such an association however cannot be ruled out at present. Thus among the identified risk factors, the use of PPI is important, previously unrecognized and modifiable risk factors whose use should be carefully evaluated among hospital in-patients receiving antibiotics, especially in those with a diagnosis of C. difficile diarrhea.

Basu S.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Dash B.P.,Fakir Mohan University | Patel D.K.,Vss Medical College And Hospital | Chakravarty S.,Institute of Genetic Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2011

Lighter cells from density fractionated erythrocytes of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients carry higher amount of externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) and cell surface glycophorins compared to the denser counterparts. Further analysis also revealed that the denser cells contained higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) compared to the lighter cells, supported by the presence of larger number of F-cells in these populations. In this report, we have found direct evidence on the higher survival of the HbF rich erythrocytes in SCD. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Biswal S.,Vss Medical College And Hospital
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Purpose: Diarrhea and dehydration caused by enteric infections is a major factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Secretory diarrhea can be devastating especially among infants, children, and HIV infected people and can result in death of more than 50% of its victims for without adequate rehydration, patients are at maximum risk during the first 6-18 hours. Hence, it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diarrhea is experienced by over 50% of AIDS patients at some time or other during the course of their illness, which is an important cause of increased morbidity and mortality in them. Currently, the standard-of-care therapy focuses only on rehydration therapy to combat dehydration and antibiotic therapy that targets the infectious agent only. Though, antimicrobial drugs have been the key treatment for diarrhea but, with the emergence of resistant strains the search for novel targets/drugs is on, for diarrhea still continues to kill millions. Methods: A literature search was done using secretory diarrhea and Crofelemer, as key words using PubMed (Medline), ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Medscape and Google Scholar search engines from January 2012 to December 2014. The types of articles included in this review were original research, review papers, recent patents and editorials from various medical schools across the globe. Though, it was practically not possible to include all studies, one can marvel at all the proclaimed mechanism of action of Crofelemer in this study. Results: Crofelemer, a channel blocker of intestinal chloride channels such as the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and the Calcium Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) plays significant roles in providing symptomatic relief in secretory diarrhea. Conclusion: Crofelemer is a first-in-class agent that possesses a unique mechanism of action through dual inhibition of both the intestinal chloride channels in secretory diarrhea. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Jena M.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Mishra S.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Pradhan S.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Jena S.,Vss Medical College And Hospital | Mishra S.S.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent, disabling conditions both in clinical and psychological aspects and yet often remains inadequately treated due to cost reasons. Moreover, chronic pain commonly occurs in conjunction with depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders. Chronic and recurrent pain not associated with a disease is very common in childhood and adolescence, but there are very less studies and analysis has been done on chronic pain epidemiology and management. As pain is the important factor influencing quality of life and also the reason for which a person seek the advice of physician even require hospitalization that is why this systematic review highlights the different types of chronic pain, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of chronic pain along with psychological issues associated with it. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.

Panda B.,Vss Medical College And Hospital
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2013

Proximal interruption of the unilateral pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly, which is often associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities. It is usually diagnosed in children but rarely discovered in adulthood as an isolated phenomenon, occurring more frequently on the right side and is often associated with a contralateral aortic arch. We are presenting a rare case of a sixty year old male who was diagnosed with left lung hypoplasia due to proximal interruption of left pulmonary artery with left sided aortic arch without any associated cardiovascular anomalies.

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