Time filter

Source Type

Basu S.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Dash B.P.,Fakir Mohan University | Patel D.K.,Vss Medical College And Hospital | Chakravarty S.,Institute of Genetic Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2011

Lighter cells from density fractionated erythrocytes of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients carry higher amount of externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) and cell surface glycophorins compared to the denser counterparts. Further analysis also revealed that the denser cells contained higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) compared to the lighter cells, supported by the presence of larger number of F-cells in these populations. In this report, we have found direct evidence on the higher survival of the HbF rich erythrocytes in SCD. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Mohapatra M.K.,Vss Medical College And Hospital | Dash L.K.,Vss Medical College And Hospital | Bariha P.K.,Vss Medical College And Hospital | Karua P.C.,Vss Medical College And Hospital
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2012

Objective: Studies on malaria due to co-existent P. falciparum and P. vivax infections are negligible in India. Therefore, this study was undertaken to find out the clinical profile, prognostic factors, and outcome of mixed species malaria and to compare it with P. falciparum malaria. Methods: This prospective, comparative study has been conducted in a tertiary health care institution with high prevalence of malaria. A cohort of 888 patients of malaria was enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of malaria was made either by Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear or RDT. Mixed species (MS) malaria was diagnosed when both P. vivax and P. falciparum were detected either from peripheral blood smear or RDT. Patients with P. falciparum malaria were grouped in to Pf group. The differences in clinical presentation, biochemical and haematological findings, occurrence of severe malaria, and outcome were recorded, compared, and analyzed. The severity of complication was assessed and Malaria Severity Score (MSS) was calculated. All the patients were treated according to WHO guidelines. Results: Of them MS and Pf malaria constituted 118 (13.2%) and 770 (86.7%) patients respectively. Severe malaria was found in 17.8% (21 of 118) patients of MS and 57.1% (440 of 770) patients Pf malaria. Pf constituted 440 (95.5%) cases where as MS constituted 21 (4.5%) respectively. The number of severe malaria was significantly (p<0.001) more in Pf than MS. Out of 21 cases of severe malaria in MS infection, 14 (66.6%) had single complication and 7 (33.3%) cases had multiple complication. However, in Pf mono infection there were 200 (45.5%) patients with single and 240 (54.5%) with multiple complication. There were 4 independent risk factors for a patient of developing complicated malaria. They were: presenting without fever, high parasite count, Pf mono infection, and fever to treatment interval. Multiple complications and high MSS are associated with increased death in Pf malaria. The outcome of patients of MS was good Conclusion: In conclusion mixed species infection is not uncommon in the locality where both species coexists. Mixed species infection can complicate with severe malaria. However, its incidence and severity is less than severe falciparum malaria. In mixed infection, P.vivax malaria has a protective effect against the severity of falciparum malaria. © JAPI • october 2012.


Kar A.,North Orissa University | Panigrahi S.,VSS Medical College and Hospital | Tripathy S.,VSS Medical College and Hospital | Mohapatra M.K.,VSS Medical College and Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Background: In malaria, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently emerged as major player of innate immunity. However, implication of TLR variants on clinical manifestations of malaria is conflicting. The present study aims to provide relevant information of growing interest in understanding the role of TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms on clinical outcomes of malaria. Methods: We genotyped TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP methods and subsequently analyzed in 200 uncomplicated patients and 200 severe patients. Further, the severe malaria categorized into sub-clinical groups such as cerebral malaria (CM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM), single organ dysfunction (SOD) and multi-organ dysfunctions (MODS) are analyzed. Result: The TLR9-1237CC genotype was observed at significantly low frequency in MODS (p=0.0008), while in heterozygous state (TC) it was proportionately more frequent in SOD (p=0.087) as compared to mild malaria. The TLR9T-1486C heterozygote was more common in all categories of severe malaria. However, pair wise LD analysis revealed significant linkage between T-1237C and T-1486C, whereas haplotype analysis showed significantly low frequency of C-T haplotype in CM (p=0.005, pc=0.02) and high frequency of T-C haplotype in NCSM as compared to mild malaria. Conclusion: Although TLR9-1237C could be a risk factor for severe malaria in heterozygous state, negative association of CC genotype with MODS warrants caution of segregating severe malaria into its sub-clinical groups while interpreting data. Further, clinical outcome in malaria was observed to be apparently modulated by LD between TLR9 promoter variants. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Biswal S.,Vss Medical College And Hospital
Biomedical Journal | Year: 2014

Increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among in-patients is associated with significant increased mortality, morbidity, and stay in the hospitals. This has occurred despite heightened awareness of the risks of broad-spectrum antibiotics, overall reduction in antibiotic use and increased focus on hospital hygiene. So though the main risk factor for CDI is use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a novel potential contributor has been implicated, because of their ability to substantially reduce gastric acid secretion which is an important host defense mechanism in suppressing the ingested C. difficile or its spores. Antibiotic disruption of the normal intestinal flora and reduced gastric acidity have been suggested as the risk factors for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Based on such assumptions the use of PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of CDAD. While a definite association between PPI use and CDAD has not yet been confirmed, the possibility and such an association however cannot be ruled out at present. Thus among the identified risk factors, the use of PPI is important, previously unrecognized and modifiable risk factors whose use should be carefully evaluated among hospital in-patients receiving antibiotics, especially in those with a diagnosis of C. difficile diarrhea.


Biswal S.,VSS Medical College and Hospital
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Purpose: Diarrhea and dehydration caused by enteric infections is a major factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Secretory diarrhea can be devastating especially among infants, children, and HIV infected people and can result in death of more than 50% of its victims for without adequate rehydration, patients are at maximum risk during the first 6-18 hours. Hence, it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diarrhea is experienced by over 50% of AIDS patients at some time or other during the course of their illness, which is an important cause of increased morbidity and mortality in them. Currently, the standard-of-care therapy focuses only on rehydration therapy to combat dehydration and antibiotic therapy that targets the infectious agent only. Though, antimicrobial drugs have been the key treatment for diarrhea but, with the emergence of resistant strains the search for novel targets/drugs is on, for diarrhea still continues to kill millions. Methods: A literature search was done using secretory diarrhea and Crofelemer, as key words using PubMed (Medline), ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Medscape and Google Scholar search engines from January 2012 to December 2014. The types of articles included in this review were original research, review papers, recent patents and editorials from various medical schools across the globe. Though, it was practically not possible to include all studies, one can marvel at all the proclaimed mechanism of action of Crofelemer in this study. Results: Crofelemer, a channel blocker of intestinal chloride channels such as the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and the Calcium Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) plays significant roles in providing symptomatic relief in secretory diarrhea. Conclusion: Crofelemer is a first-in-class agent that possesses a unique mechanism of action through dual inhibition of both the intestinal chloride channels in secretory diarrhea. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


PubMed | Vss Medical College And Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical journal | Year: 2014

Increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among in-patients is associated with significant increased mortality, morbidity, and stay in the hospitals. This has occurred despite heightened awareness of the risks of broad-spectrum antibiotics, overall reduction in antibiotic use and increased focus on hospital hygiene. So though the main risk factor for CDI is use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a novel potential contributor has been implicated, because of their ability to substantially reduce gastric acid secretion which is an important host defense mechanism in suppressing the ingested C. difficile or its spores. Antibiotic disruption of the normal intestinal flora and reduced gastric acidity have been suggested as the risk factors for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Based on such assumptions the use of PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of CDAD. While a definite association between PPI use and CDAD has not yet been confirmed, the possibility and such an association however cannot be ruled out at present. Thus among the identified risk factors, the use of PPI is important, previously unrecognized and modifiable risk factors whose use should be carefully evaluated among hospital in-patients receiving antibiotics, especially in those with a diagnosis of C. difficile diarrhea.


PubMed | VSS Medical College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ancient science of life | Year: 2015

To study the effect of graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper betel (PB) Linn (PBL) on the estrous cycle of female albino rats.Both the extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at three dose levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and the vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for the different phases of the estrous cycle for a period of 30 days.The estrous cycle was irregular and prolonged in the treated groups indicating anestrus condition, which would result in infertility. Both types of the extract showed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus and estrus with a prolonged diestrus at 1000 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day doses as compared with control. However, no change was seen in the metestrus phase. The rats treated with PB showed a significant (P < 0.05), dose-dependent decrease in the estrus phase, in comparison to the control group, the effect was more with the methanolic extract. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase with decreased number of cornified cells. There was a significant reduction in the number of the estrous cycle, in the PBL treated group. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic PB extract, which was not observed in the control group. However, the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day had no effect either on the estrous cycle or on its different phases. The observed effect of PB leaves could be due to the flavonoids and saponin contents, which also contributes to its antiestrogenic mechanism of action.Both the aqueous and methanolic extract of PBL possesses antifertility effect in female albino rats.


PubMed | VSS Medical College and Hospital and North Orissa University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunologic research | Year: 2016

Although the role of TLRs signalling in malaria pathogenesis is well established, contribution of individual TLR to clinical outcome of malaria still remains inconclusive. Given the importance of TLR2 and its co-receptors in recognising distinct structural forms of key malaria toxins and mediating innate immune response, it is essential to delineate their genetic contribution. Variants in TLR1 (I602S) and TLR6 (P249S) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods, and TLR2 (I/D) was genotyped by PCR in 200 samples each from uncomplicated malaria (UM) and severe malaria (SM). Further, SM was categorised into its sub-clinical groups (CM and NCSM or SOD and MODS) and analysed. The results showed the PP genotype of TLR6 (P249S) to be significantly more common in UM (P < 0.0001), whereas the SS genotype was the risk factor for SM including its sub-clinical categories. The TLR1 (602S) and TLR2 (D) variants were significantly high in patients with CM; however, negative LD was observed between TLR2 and TLR6 in NCSM and MODS. Haplotype analysis showed significantly high frequency of I-I-S haplotype in all forms of subclinical SM and was associated with low parasite load in SM (P = 0.013). The haplotypes I-D-S and S-I-P were significantly high in SOD and CM, respectively. The TLR6 249S variant appeared to be the dominant determinant for genetic predisposition to SM and that its association with either TLR2 D or TLR1 602S modulates for CM development. The present study opens up several new avenues for their exploration and validation in future studies in different global settings for malaria.


PubMed | VSS Medical College and Hospital and North Orissa University
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015

In malaria, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently emerged as major player of innate immunity. However, implication of TLR variants on clinical manifestations of malaria is conflicting. The present study aims to provide relevant information of growing interest in understanding the role of TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms on clinical outcomes of malaria.We genotyped TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP methods and subsequently analyzed in 200 uncomplicated patients and 200 severe patients. Further, the severe malaria categorized into sub-clinical groups such as cerebral malaria (CM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM), single organ dysfunction (SOD) and multi-organ dysfunctions (MODS) are analyzed.The TLR9-1237CC genotype was observed at significantly low frequency in MODS (p=0.0008), while in heterozygous state (TC) it was proportionately more frequent in SOD (p=0.087) as compared to mild malaria. The TLR9T-1486C heterozygote was more common in all categories of severe malaria. However, pair wise LD analysis revealed significant linkage between T-1237C and T-1486C, whereas haplotype analysis showed significantly low frequency of C-T haplotype in CM (p=0.005, pc=0.02) and high frequency of T-C haplotype in NCSM as compared to mild malaria.Although TLR9-1237C could be a risk factor for severe malaria in heterozygous state, negative association of CC genotype with MODS warrants caution of segregating severe malaria into its sub-clinical groups while interpreting data. Further, clinical outcome in malaria was observed to be apparently modulated by LD between TLR9 promoter variants.


PubMed | Vss Medical College And Hospital
Type: | Journal: The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2013

Studies on malaria due to co-existent P. falciparum and P. vivax infections are negligible in India. Therefore, this study was undertaken to find out the clinical profile, prognostic factors, and outcome of mixed species malaria and to compare it with P. falciparum malaria.This prospective, comparative study has been conducted in a tertiary health care institution with high prevalence of malaria. A cohort of 888 patients of malaria was enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of malaria was made either by Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear or RDT. Mixed species (MS) malaria was diagnosed when both P. vivax and P. falciparum were detected either from peripheral blood smear or RDT. Patients with P. falciparum malaria were grouped in to Pf group. The differences in clinical presentation, biochemical and haematological findings, occurrence of severe malaria, and outcome were recorded, compared, and analyzed. The severity of complication was assessed and Malaria Severity Score (MSS) was calculated. All the patients were treated according to WHO guidelines.Of them MS and Pf malaria constituted 118 (13.2%) and 770 (86.7%) patients respectively. Severe malaria was found in 17.8% (21 of 118) patients of MS and 57.1% (440 of 770) patients Pf malaria. Pf constituted 440 (95.5%) cases where as MS constituted 21 (4.5%) respectively. The number of severe malaria was significantly (p < 0.001) more in Pf than MS. Out of 21 cases of severe malaria in MS infection, 14 (66.6%) had single complication and 7 (33.3%) cases had multiple complication. However, in Pf mono infection there were 200 (45.5%) patients with single and 240 (54.5%) with multiple complication. There were 4 independent risk factors for a patient of developing complicated malaria. They were: presenting without fever, high parasite count, Pf mono infection, and fever to treatment interval. Multiple complications and high MSS are associated with increased death in Pf malaria. The outcome of patients of MS was good.In conclusion mixed species infection is not uncommon in the locality where both species coexists. Mixed species infection can complicate with severe malaria. However, its incidence and severity is less than severe falciparum malaria. In mixed infection, P.vivax malaria has a protective effect against the severity of falciparum malaria.

Loading Vss Medical College And Hospital collaborators
Loading Vss Medical College And Hospital collaborators