Norrköping, Sweden
Norrköping, Sweden

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Linderholm M.,Valdemarsviks Vardcentral | Friedrichsen M.,Vrinnevi Hospital | Friedrichsen M.,Linköping University
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2010

Primary health care is the base of Swedish healthcare, and many terminally ill patients are cared for at home. A dying relative has a profound impact on his/her family members' situation, including negative effects on roles, well-being, and health. The aim of this study was to explore how the informal carers of a dying relative in palliative home care experienced their caring role and support during the patient's final illness and after death. Fourteen family members were selected in 4 primary health care areas in Sweden. Data were collected using open, tape-recorded interviews. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that being an informal carer was natural when a relative became seriously ill. More or less voluntarily, the family member took on a caring role of control and responsibility. The informal carers felt left out and had feelings of powerlessness when they did not manage to establish a relationship with the healthcare professionals. For the informal carers to feel seen, it was necessary for them to narrate about their own supporting role. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Kallstrom R.,Linköping University | Hjertberg H.,Vrinnevi Hospital | Svanvik J.,Linköping University
Journal of Endourology | Year: 2010

Purpose: To examine the content and construct validity of a full procedure transurethral prostate resection simulation model (PelvicVision). Materials and Methods: The full procedure simulator consisted of a modified resectoscope connected to a robotic arm with haptic feedback, foot pedals, and a standard desktop computer. The simulation calculated the flow of irrigation fluid, the amount of bleeding, the corresponding blood fog, the resectoscope movements, resection volumes, use of current, and blood loss. Eleven medical students and nine clinically experienced urologists filled in questionnaires regarding previous experiences, performance evaluation, and their opinion of the usefulness of the simulator after performing six (students) and three (urologists) full procedures with different levels of difficulty. Their performance was evaluated using a checklist. Results: The urologists finished the procedures in half the time as the students with the same resection volume and blood loss but with fewer serious perforations of the prostatic capsule and/or sphincter area and less irrigation fluid uptake. The resectoscope tip movement was longer and the irrigation fluid uptake per resected volume was about 5 times higher for the students. The students showed a positive learning curve in most variables. Conclusion: There is proof of construct validity and good content validation for this full procedure simulator for training in transurethral resection of the prostate. The simulator could be used in the early training of urology residents without risk of negative outcome. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.


Krevers B.,Linköping University | Milberg A.,Linköping University | Milberg A.,Vrinnevi Hospital
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective The aim of this paper is to report the development, construction, and psychometric properties of the new instrument Sense of Security in Care - Patients' Evaluation (SEC-P) in palliative home care. Methods The preliminary instrument was based on a review of the literature and an analysis of qualitative interviews with patients about their sense of security. To test the instrument, 161 patients (58% women) in palliative home care were recruited and participated in a structured interview based on a comprehensive questionnaire (response rate 73%). We used principal component analysis to identify subscales and tested the construction in correlation with other scales and questions representing concepts that we expected to be related to sense of security in care. Results The principal component analysis resulted in three subscales: Care Interaction, Identity, and Mastery, built on a total of 15 items. The component solution had an explained variance of 55%. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from 0.84 to 0.69. Inter-scale correlations varied between 0.40 and 0.59. The scales were associated to varying degrees with the quality of the care process, perceived health, quality of life, stress, and general sense of security. Conclusions The developed SEC-P provides a three-component assessment of palliative home care settings using valid and reliable scales. The scales were associated with other concepts in ways that were expected. The SEC-P is a manageable means of assessment that can be used to improve quality of care and in research focusing on patients' sense of security in care. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Jonsson C.A.,Vrinnevi Hospital | Stenberg A.,Vrinnevi Hospital | Frisman G.H.,Linköping University
European Journal of Cancer Care | Year: 2011

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses and undergoing colorectal cancer surgery is reported to be associated with physical symptoms and psychological reactions. Social support is described as important during the postoperative period. The purpose of this paper was to describe how patients experience the early postoperative period after colorectal cancer surgery. Interviews according a phenomenological approach were performed with 13 adult participants, within 1week after discharge from hospital. Data were collected from August 2006 to February 2007. Analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted according to Giorgi. The essence of the phenomenon was to regain control over ones body in the early postoperative period after colorectal cancer surgery. Lack of control, fear of wound and anastomosis rupture, insecurity according to complications was prominent findings. When caring for these patients it is a challenge to be sensitive, encourage and promote patients to express their feelings and needs. One possibility to empower the patients and give support could be a follow up phone call within a week after discharge. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Background In the coming half-century, the population of old people will increase, especially in the oldest age groups. Therefore, the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions, and consequently, the need of health care including care in hospital, is rising. Materials and methods This article includes results from three mainly qualitative articles (interviews with frail old people, physicians, and an observational study in acute medical wards) and a cross-sectional survey of newly discharged elderly patients. Results Health care does not take a holistic approach to patients with more complex diseases, such as frail old people. The remuneration system rewards high production of care in terms of numbers of investigations and operations, turnover of hospital beds, and easy accessibility to care. Frail old people do not feel welcome in hospital, with their complex diseases and a need of more time to recover. The staff providing care feels frustrated, and often guilty when taking care of old people. Discussion and conclusion To improve quality of care of frail elderly, a model is suggested with the following main components: more hospital wards which can address the patients' whole situation medically, functionally, and psychologically, i.e comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Better identification of frail elderly people is necessary, together with a change in remuneration system, with a focus on the patients' functional status and quality of life. More training in geriatrics is required for staff to feel confident when treating frail old people. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society.


Gumundsson E.,Uppsala University Hospital | Hellborg H.,Karolinska University Hospital | Lundstam S.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Erikson S.,Vrinnevi Hospital | Ljungberg B.,Umeå University
European Urology | Year: 2011

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all malignancies and accounts for approximately 90% of all kidney malignancies. An increasing proportion of RCCs are discovered incidentally, and the average tumor diameter at diagnosis has decreased over the last few decades. Small RCCs have often been regarded by many as relatively harmless. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the incidence of local T-category distribution and lymph node and distant metastases in relation to tumor size in RCCs ≤7 cm in a nationally based patient population. Design, setting, and participants: Data were extracted from the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register containing 3489 RCCs diagnosed between 2005 and 2008. This is a population-based registry including 99% of all RCCs diagnosed nationwide. The study included 2033 patients having a tumor ≤7 cm in diameter. Measurements: The size of the tumors was compared with sex, age, cause of diagnosis, Fuhrman grade, RCC type, and TNM category. Results and limitations: Most RCCs were discovered incidentally and incidence correlated inversely to tumor size. There were 887 (43%) patients with category T1a tumors, 836 (40%) with category T1b, 174 (8%) with T3a, 131 (6%) with T3b/c, and 12 (1%) patients had invasion of adjacent organs (T4). A total of 309 (15%) patients had lymph node and/or distant metastases. Of the 177 1- to 2-cm RCCs, category T3 tumors were identified in three patients and lymph node and/or distant metastases were identified in 8 (5%). Only for tumors ≤1 cm was there neither advanced stage nor metastasis. The occurrence of locally advanced growth, lymph node and distant metastases, and high tumor grade correlated to tumor size. Patients with Fuhrman grade III or IV had a four-fold greater risk of metastases than grades I or II. Conclusions: Lymph node and distant metastases occur even in small RCCs. Risk of metastases increases with tumor size. The data clearly show that small RCCs also have a malignant potential and should be properly evaluated and adequately treated. © 2011 European Association of Urology.


Chabok A.,Uppsala University | Pahlman L.,Uppsala University | Hjern F.,Karolinska Institutet | Haapaniemi S.,Vrinnevi Hospital | Smedh K.,Uppsala University
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: The standard of care for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis today is antibiotic treatment, although there are no controlled studies supporting this management. The aim was to investigate the need for antibiotic treatment in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, with the endpoint of recovery without complications after 12 months of follow-up. Methods: This multicentre randomized trial involving ten surgical departments in Sweden and one in Iceland recruited 623 patients with computed tomography-verified acute uncomplicated left-sided diverticulitis. Patients were randomized to treatment with (314 patients) or without (309 patients) antibiotics. Results: Age, sex, body mass index, co-morbidities, body temperature, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level on admission were similar in the two groups. Complications such as perforation or abscess formation were found in six patients (1·9 per cent) who received no antibiotics and in three (1·0 per cent) who were treated with antibiotics (P = 0·302). The median hospital stay was 3 days in both groups. Recurrent diverticulitis necessitating readmission to hospital at the 1-year follow-up was similar in the two groups (16 per cent, P = 0·881). Conclusion: Antibiotic treatment for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis neither accelerates recovery nor prevents complications or recurrence. It should be reserved for the treatment of complicated diverticulitis. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Milovanovic M.,Vrinnevi Hospital
Pathophysiology of haemostasis and thrombosis | Year: 2010

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is characterized by high platelet counts and a slightly increased bleeding risk. Why severe hemorrhage does not occur more frequently is not known. Variations of platelet density (kg/l) depend mainly on cell organelle content in that high-density platelets contain more α and dense granules. This study compares ET patients (n = 2) and healthy volunteers (n = 2) with respect to platelet density subpopulations. A linear Percoll™ gradient containing prostaglandin E(1) was employed to separate platelets according to density. The platelet population was subsequently divided by density into 16 or 17 subpopulations. Determination of platelet counts was carried out. In each density fraction, platelet in vivo activity, i.e. platelet-bound fibrinogen, was measured using a flow cytometer. To further characterize platelet subpopulations, we determined intracellular concentrations of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and P-selectin in all fractions. Patients and controls demonstrated similar density distributions, i.e. 1 density peak. High-density platelets had more surface-bound fibrinogen in conjunction with signs of platelet release reactions, i.e. with few exceptions they contained less CD40L and P-selectin. Peak density platelets showed less surface-bound fibrinogen. These platelets contained less CD40L and P-selectin than nearby denser populations. The light platelets had more surface-bound fibrinogen than peak platelets together with elevated concentrations of CD40L. In ET, the malignant platelet production could exist together with platelets originating from normal megakaryocytes. It is also possible that clonal megakaryocytes produce platelets covering the entire density span. The 'normal' density distribution offers a tenable explanation as to why serious bleedings do not occur more frequently. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Knowledge concerning the neurobiological importance of platelets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is sparse. P-selectin, which is located together with β-amyloid precursor proteins in platelet α-granules, is also found in endothelial cells. Upon activation, P-selectin is relocated to cell surfaces where it acts as a receptor. Subsequently, the protein is cleaved from the membrane, to then be circulated. We investigated P-selectin behavior in AD dementia. We recruited 23 persons diagnosed moderate AD and 17 healthy elders without obvious memory problems. Circulating P-selectin was analyzed using an ELISA technique and flow cytometry was used to measure surface-bound P-selectin. The latter measure was carried out without provocation (platelet activity) and after in vitro agonist stimulation (platelet reactivity). A thrombin-receptor activating peptide (TRAP-6) (74 μmol/L)) was used as a platelet agonist. Soluble P-selectin was augmented in AD (p = 0.019) but platelet membrane-attached P-selectin did not differ from controls. AD diagnosis was associated with less surface-bound P-selectin after provocation. Significant results were obtained when 74 μmol/L TRAP-6 was used as a platelet agonist (p = 0.0008). This study describes apparently paradoxical P-selectin reactions in moderate AD. While soluble P-selectin was higher in the disease group, membrane-attached P-selectin without agonist stimulation was no different between the disease and control groups. In contrast, AD was linked to lower platelet reactivity. The current findings encourage further research into this P-selectin paradox and its relevance for AD and, perhaps, other types of dementia as well.


Milovanovic M.,Vrinnevi Hospital
Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis | Year: 2010

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is characterized by high platelet counts and a slightly increased bleeding risk. Why severe hemorrhage does not occur more frequently is not known. Variations of platelet density (kg/l) depend mainly on cell organelle content in that high-density platelets contain more α and dense granules. This study compares ET patients (n = 2) and healthy volunteers (n = 2) with respect to platelet density subpopulations. A linear Percoll™ gradient containing prostaglandin E1 was employed to separate platelets according to density. The platelet population was subsequently divided by density into 16 or 17 subpopulations. Determination of platelet counts was carried out. In each density fraction, platelet in vivo activity, i.e. platelet-bound fibrinogen, was measured using a flow cytometer. To further characterize platelet subpopulations, we determined intracellular concentrations of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and P-selectin in all fractions. Patients and controls demonstrated similar density distributions, i.e. 1 density peak. High-density platelets had more surface-bound fibrinogen in conjunction with signs of platelet release reactions, i.e. with few exceptions they contained less CD40L and P-selectin. Peak density platelets showed less surface-bound fibrinogen. These platelets contained less CD40L and P-selectin than nearby denser populations. The light platelets had more surface-bound fibrinogen than peak platelets together with elevated concentrations of CD40L. In ET, the malignant platelet production could exist together with platelets originating from normal megakaryocytes. It is also possible that clonal megakaryocytes produce platelets covering the entire density span. The 'normal' density distribution offers a tenable explanation as to why serious bleedings do not occur more frequently. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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