Almora, India
Almora, India
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Vignesh M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nepolean T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Saha S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Carotenoids are the major sources of dietary precursor of vitamin A and act as potential antioxidant besides preventing diseases such as night blindness in humans. Vitamin A deficiency is a global problem, but is particularly prevalent in developing countries like India, where 31 percent of pre-school children are reportedly affected. Evaluation of genetic variability for kernel β-carotene in 105 maize inbreds of diverse pedigree from India-and CIMMYT-origin revealed significant variation ranging from 0.02 to 16.50 ìg/g. One of the key reasons for wide variation of kernel β-carotene is due to the allelic variation at crtRB1 3'TE gene. Five among 95 inbreds possessed the favourable crtRB1 3'TE allele with a mean β-carotene concentration of 0.86 ìg/g. In contrast, the same allele detected in 20 CIMMYT-Maize HarvestPlus genotypes contributed a mean kernel β-carotene concentration of 11.29 ìg/g. The contrast in β-carotene concentration in Indian and CIMMYT genotypes could be attributed to the presence of SNPs and InDels in crtRB1 3'TE locus, along with the presence/absence of favourable alleles of other important genes influencing the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Marker-assisted breeding has been initiated, to introgress the crtRB1 3'TE favourable allele using high β-carotene CIMMYT inbreds as donors, to develop provitamin A-rich maize cultivars suitable for maize growing regions in India.

Bhattacharyya R.,VPKAS | Bhattacharyya R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Pandey A.K.,VPKAS | Gopinath K.A.,VPKAS | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

A 9-year old experiment was conducted at Almora, India to study the effects of mineral sources of nutrients in different combinations with or without crop residue or farmyard manure (FYM) addition on crop productivity under a rainfed maize–wheat system. Plots under 100 % nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK) + FYM had maximum mean maize (5.00 Mg ha−1) and wheat (2.61 Mg ha−1) yields that were generally significantly higher than yields observed under other treatments. Total soil organic carbon (C) increased in all treatments except with mineral fertilization and control plots. While NPK treated plots had significantly higher benefit:cost ratio than NPK + FYM plots, organic C content in the NPK treated plots decreased over the initial soil and FYM treated plots had better soil physical and chemical properties than NPK only. Thus, the study showed that although the combined 100 % NPK and FYM application had higher productivity of the maize–wheat system, the same is as remunerative as 50 % NPK + FYM, if the cost of FYM was considered. However, depending upon the resource availability, farmers can also apply Kudzu, maize stalk and wheat straw annually along with adjusted dose of NPK to a crop and full dose of NPK to the other crop as the alternate options. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.

Kumar S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Pardurange Gowda K.T.,University of Mysore | Pant S.K.,V.P.K.A.S. | Shekhar M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2011

A study was carried out to identify the sources of resistance to Turcicum leaf blight (TLB) and polysora rust in maize. Sixty indigenous and exotic inbred lines were evaluated under artificial epiphytotic conditions at two identified hot spot locations, Almora and Nagenahalli. After two years continuous screening, a total of 20 inbred lines were identified as a sources of resistance at both the locations for TLB, whereas 10 inbred lines were identified resistant against Polysora rust at Nagenahalli. A clear cut variation in virulence pattern in case of E. turcicum was observed. Some of the inbred inbred lines, i.e CM 138, CM 212, IML 235, NAI 135, showed resistant reaction in both the locations in the year 2005, whereas they acted as susceptible in 2006 at both locations. It was also observed that the Nagenahalli isolate of E. turcicum was more virulent than the Almora isolate. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Tuti M.D.,VPKAS | Das T.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sairam R.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Annapurna K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh S.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2015

Post-emergence treatments are often the keys to efficient weed control, and could be a substitute or supplementary to pre-emergence treatment. Accordingly, this study was designed to test the selectivity and efficacy of sequential (pre- + post-emergence) applications of metribuzin on weeds in soybean, and to optimize the dose, volume rate and time of application. We observed that sequential metribuzin treatments were more toxic to soil micro-organisms and caused greater inhibition in photosynthesis, acetylene reduction activity and nodulation of soybean compared to only pre-emergence applications of metribuzin or pendimethalin. The negative effects, however, were mitigated by increased activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in soybean. The sequential applications left negligible residues at harvest. A sequential application of metribuzin 0.25 kg ha−1 2 days after sowing and 0.1 kg ha−1 20 days after sowing with 200 Lha−1 of water gave a higher seed yield. This ensured the possibility of sequential application of metribuzin with an optimized dose, volume rate and time of application. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.

Bhardwaj S.C.,Directorate of Wheat Research | Jain S.K.,VPKAS | Prashar M.,MAHYCO | Kumar S.,Directorate of Wheat Research
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Emmer and durum wheats are generally resistant to leaf (brown) rust in many countries including India, where pathotypes specialized to these wheats rarely occur. During 2006, widespread prevalence of leaf (brown) rust was recorded on Emmer wheat. A new pathotype, 5R9-7(DBBGB), of Puccinia triticina was associated with leaf rust on many of the popular cultivars, which was avirulent to most of the bread wheat accessions tested; including Agra Local, a susceptible host to wheat rusts in India. Pathotype 5R9-7(DBBGB) was found to be virulent to Lr2c, Lr14a, Lr18 and Lr20. Resistance sources to this pathotype based on evaluation of Indian and exotic wheat germplasm, its avirulence/virulence structure, adult plant response of important tetraploid wheat material and other attributes are described. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Hedau N.K.,VPKAS | Tuti M.D.,VPKAS | Stanley J.,VPKAS | Mina B.L.,VPKAS | And 3 more authors.
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2014

Under off-seasonality, high-value vegetable cultivation in the greenhouse is more profitable and gaining more acceptances day by day. This study aims to analyze the energy requirement and energy input-output relationship with the economics of vegetable-based cropping sequences viz., tomato nursery-tomato-pepper-onion nursery (CS1), tomato nursery-pepper-soil treatment-cucumber (CS2), tomato nursery-tomato-soil treatment-cucumber (CS3), tomato nursery-cucumber-soil treatment-pepper (CS4), and tomato nursery-tomato-soil treatment-pepper (CS5) in greenhouse conditions of Indian sub-Himalayas. The five sequential treatments were statistically analyzed in randomized block design with four replications. Results reveal that cucumber production required highest input energy (1,059.9 MJ/100 m2) than tomato or pepper. The highest input (3,477.4 MJ/100 m2) and output (4,787.5 MJ/100 m2) energy was observed with CS3. Crop protection (28.9-55.7 %), manures and chemical fertilizers (17.5-33.1 %), and plant stacking, training and pruning (16.3-21.9 %) consumed the bulk of the energy for all cropping sequences. The CS3 with the highest tomato equivalent yield produced the highest net energy (1,310.1 MJ/100 m2), energy productivity (0.63 MJ/100 m2), energy intensiveness (0.297 MJ/100 m2), and benefit/cost ratio (1.82). Energy consumption in the form of indirect (70.6-80.2 %) and non-renewable (83.9-85.7 %) energy was higher than direct and renewable energy, respectively. Considering these, CS3 (tomato nursery-tomato-soil treatment-cucumber) cropping sequence will be a more suitable option for greenhouse cultivation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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