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Misi A.,Federal University of Bahia | Kaufman A.J.,University of Maryland University College | Azmy K.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Dardenne M.A.,University of Brasilia | And 2 more authors.
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2011

The Neoproterozoic successions of the São Francisco Craton are primarily represented by the Bambuí and Una groups, deposited in cratonic epicontinental basins, and by the Vazante and Vaza Barris/Miaba groups, which accumulated on passive margins on the edges of the craton. The epicontinental basins comprise three megasequences: glaciogenic, carbonate platform (marine) and dominantly continental siliciclastics. Possible correlative sequences are observed in the passive margin deposits. At least two major transgressive-regressive sea-level cycles occurred during the evolution of the carbonate megasequence, which lies above glaciomarine diamictites of probable early Cryogenian (i.e. Sturtian) age. C, O, Sr and S isotope trends from analyses of well-preserved samples, together with lithostratigraphic observations, provide reasonable correlations for most of the Neoproterozoic successions of the São Francisco Craton. The 87Sr/ 86Sr record of these successions, ranging from 0.70769 to 0.70780, supports the proposed correlation with the Bambuí, Una and Vaza/Barris successions, and with the basal units of the Vazante Group. In addition, C-isotope positive excursions ranging from +8.7 to +14‰ and negative excursions from -5.7 to -7‰ VPDB in the Bambuí, Una and Vaza-Barris successions provide key markers for correlations. The precise ages of the sedimentation in these successions remains a matter of debate, but organic shales of two units of the Vazante Group have been dated by Re-Os techniques in two different laboratories, both yielding Mesoproterozoic ages. The Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic successions preserve significant glaciogenic deposits. © The Geological Society of London 2011.


Siga Jr. O.,University of Sao Paulo | Stipp Basei M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Sato K.,University of Sao Paulo | Passarelli C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

The main aim of this work is to present and discuss the U-Pb zircon ages and Nd-Sr isotopic data from the metabasic rocks that occur within the metamorphosed Votuverava and Perau volcano sedimentary sequences, located in the Apiaí Terrane, south-southeastern Brazil. The geochemical pattern of most of these metabasic rocks is similar to those of tholeiitic basalts, suggesting an extensional environment. The U-Pb zircon ages obtained around ca. 1480 Ma characterize an important basic magmatism during the Mesoproterozoic in south-southeastern Brazil. Nd model ages and e{open} Nd/e{open} Sr signatures suggest the Mesoproterozoic as the main period of mantle/crust differentiation for the crustal precursors of these metabasic rocks. It is quite possible that the Mesoproterozoic extentional events that caused the opening of large sedimentary basins in southern-southeastern Brazil have been underestimated. Possible regional correlations between the Votuverava-Perau basin (PR), the Betara and água Clara sequences (PR-SP) and the Serra do Itaberaba Group (SP) demonstrate the magnitude of the extensional process associated with the break-up of the preexisting continental masses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cabral A.R.,Clausthal University of Technology | Eugster O.,University of Bern | Brauns M.,University of Tübingen | Lehmann B.,Clausthal University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2013

New analytical developments have made radiogenic helium (4He) applicable to archeological gold artifacts for age determinations. Here we report the application of the U/Th-4He method to the direct dating of gold from the historically important gold deposit in Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The U/Th-4He age of 515 ± 55 Ma for the Diamantina gold is corroborated by a new U/Pb age of 524 ± 16 Ma for rutile recovered from auriferous pockets. These ages tie the Diamantina gold mineralization to the Brasiliano orogenic event, in the context of the Gondwana amalgamation. Our results indicate that U/Th-4He dating of gold is possible, opening new perspectives for the dating of gold deposits without assuming contemporaneity between gold and datable hydrothermal minerals.


Wiseguyreports.Com Adds “Cobalt -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and analysis of Top Key Player Forecast to 2021” To Its Research Database This report studies sales (consumption) of Cobalt in Global market, especially in USA, China, Europe, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Cobalt in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like USA China Europe Japan India Southeast Asia Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Cobalt in each application, can be divided into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Global Cobalt Sales Market Report 2016 1 Cobalt Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Cobalt 1.2 Classification of Cobalt 1.2.1 Type I 1.2.2 Type II 1.2.3 Type III 1.3 Application of Cobalt 1.3.1 Application 1 1.3.2 Application 2 1.3.3 Application 3 1.4 Cobalt Market by Regions 1.4.1 USA Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.5 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Cobalt (2011-2021) 1.5.1 Global Cobalt Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 1.5.2 Global Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 9 Global Cobalt Manufacturers Analysis 9.1 Freeport-McMoRan 9.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.1.2 Cobalt Product Type, Application and Specification 9.1.2.1 Type I 9.1.2.2 Type II 9.1.3 Freeport-McMoRan Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.2 Glencore 9.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.2.2 125 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.2.2.1 Type I 9.2.2.2 Type II 9.2.3 Glencore Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.3 Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt 9.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.3.2 142 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.3.2.1 Type I 9.3.2.2 Type II 9.3.3 Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.4 Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal 9.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.4.2 Nov Product Type, Application and Specification 9.4.2.1 Type I 9.4.2.2 Type II 9.4.3 Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.5 Sherritt International 9.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.5.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.5.2.1 Type I 9.5.2.2 Type II 9.5.3 Sherritt International Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.6 Umicore 9.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.6.2 Million USD Product Type, Application and Specification 9.6.2.1 Type I 9.6.2.2 Type II 9.6.3 Umicore Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.7 Ambatovy 9.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.7.2 Chemical & Material Product Type, Application and Specification 9.7.2.1 Type I 9.7.2.2 Type II 9.7.3 Ambatovy Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.8 BHP Billiton 9.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.8.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.8.2.1 Type I 9.8.2.2 Type II 9.8.3 BHP Billiton Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.9 Chambishi Metals 9.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.9.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.9.2.1 Type I 9.9.2.2 Type II 9.9.3 Chambishi Metals Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.10 Eramet 9.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.10.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.10.2.1 Type I 9.10.2.2 Type II 9.10.3 Eramet Cobalt Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.11 Formation Metals 9.12 Gecamines 9.13 GEM 9.14 Katanga Mining 9.15 Minara 9.16 Norilsk 9.17 Rubamin 9.18 Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt 9.19 Votorantim Metais 9.20 Jiangsu Cobalt Nickel Metal


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Notes:  Sales, means the sales volume of Cobalt  Revenue, means the sales value of Cobalt This report studies sales (consumption) of Cobalt in Global market, especially in USA, China, Europe, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering  Freeport-McMoRan  Glencore  Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt  Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal  Sherritt International  Umicore  Ambatovy  BHP Billiton  Chambishi Metals  Eramet  Formation Metals  Gecamines  GEM  Katanga Mining  Minara  Norilsk  Rubamin  Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt  Votorantim Metais  Jiangsu Cobalt Nickel Metal  Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Cobalt in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like  USA  China  Europe  Japan  India  Southeast Asia  Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into  Type I  Type II  Type III  Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Cobalt in each application, can be divided into  Application 1  Application 2  Application 3 Global Cobalt Sales Market Report 2016  1 Cobalt Overview  1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Cobalt  1.2 Classification of Cobalt  1.2.1 Type I  1.2.2 Type II  1.2.3 Type III  1.3 Application of Cobalt  1.3.1 Application 1  1.3.2 Application 2  1.3.3 Application 3  1.4 Cobalt Market by Regions  1.4.1 USA Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.5 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Cobalt (2011-2021)  1.5.1 Global Cobalt Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  1.5.2 Global Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 2 Global Cobalt Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application  2.1 Global Cobalt Market Competition by Manufacturers  2.1.1 Global Cobalt Sales and Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016)  2.1.2 Global Cobalt Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016)  2.2 Global Cobalt (Volume and Value) by Type  2.2.1 Global Cobalt Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  2.2.2 Global Cobalt Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  2.3 Global Cobalt (Volume and Value) by Regions  2.3.1 Global Cobalt Sales and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)  2.3.2 Global Cobalt Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)  2.4 Global Cobalt (Volume) by Application Figure Picture of Cobalt  Table Classification of Cobalt  Figure Global Sales Market Share of Cobalt by Type in 2015  Figure Type I Picture  Figure Type II Picture  Table Applications of Cobalt  Figure Global Sales Market Share of Cobalt by Application in 2015  Figure Application 1 Examples  Figure Application 2 Examples  Figure USA Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure China Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Europe Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Japan Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure India Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Southeast Asia Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Global Cobalt Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Global Cobalt Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Table Global Cobalt Sales of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016)  Table Global Cobalt Sales Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016)  Figure 2015 Cobalt Sales Share by Manufacturers


Cabral A.R.,Clausthal University of Technology | Wiedenbeck M.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Koglin N.,University of Würzburg | Lehmann B.,Votorantim Metais | De Abreu F.R.,Clausthal University of Technology
Lithos | Year: 2012

Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hematitic phyllite has been interpreted as a metamorphosed palaeosol after basaltic rocks and, as such, has been used as a palaeoclimatic indicator. However, the lateritic nature of the hematitic phyllite cannot unambiguously be determined because of the K metasomatism, hematitisation and tourmalinisation recorded in the hematitic phyllite and in the arenaceous country rocks. Here we report the B-isotopic and chemical compositions of tourmaline from the hematitic phyllite. Our δ 11B data are in the range between -15% and 4%. The tourmaline compositions fall along the povondraite-"oxy-dravite" join, which defines a meta-evaporitic tourmaline trend. A meta-evaporitic B source is constrained by the B-isotopic data as non-marine. Our model for the hematitic phyllite suggests that B- and K-rich brines were derived from the metamorphic dewatering of non-marine evaporites. Such brines extensively altered volcanic rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, leading to tourmaline-bearing, hematite-sericite assemblages of the hematitic phyllite. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


De Oliveira S.B.,Votorantim Metais | Da Costa M.L.,Federal University of Pará | Dos Prazeres Filho H.J.,Votorantim Metais
Economic Geology | Year: 2016

Detailed geologic surveys (including mapping, drillings, trenches, and mineralogical and chemical analyses) have delimited a new giant lateritic bauxite deposit with 642 million metric tons (Mt) of 42.7% Al2O3 (available) in the world-renowned Amazon Province, northern Brazil. The mineral resource is part of a mature laterite profile and consists of reddish to mottled clay at the base that narrows upward to massive bauxite, followed by ferruginous bauxite, and is capped by an iron horizon (nodular and columnar ferruginous crust) and nodular bauxite with a clayey matrix; a thick clay cover sealed the profile after abrupt contact. The bauxite ore is composed of gibbsite in addition to goethite, hematite, and kaolinite. In general, the ore has high concentrations of Al2O3 (avg 52.4% in massive bauxite and 39.9% in ferruginous bauxite) and Fe2O3 (avg 14.8% in massive bauxite and 35.1% in ferruginous bauxite) and low concentrations of SiO2 (avg 4.33% in massive bauxite and 3.21% in ferruginous bauxite) and is therefore of metallurgical grade. Geologic contact features together with REE distribution patterns indicate that the horizon successions were formed in situ via alteration of the basal sedimentary rocks through polyphasic bauxitization events. These features are comparable with those of other world-class bauxite deposits in this province, such as Trombetas, Juruti, and Paragominas. The Rondon do Pará bauxite orebody consists of massive bauxite and ferruginous bauxite layers. The last layer is a differentiated horizon that is not always present in other deposit profiles; when it is present, however, it is not classified as ore. Correlation with other Amazonian bauxite deposits demonstrates that the Rondon do Pará deposit is of lateritic origin, was formed during the Paleocene-Eocene, and was reworked in the Miocene. © 2016 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.


Van Deursen C.,Votorantim Metais
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2015

The Alumina Rondon refinery will have a production capacity of 3.0 million tons of smelter grade alumina per year. For this production, approximately, 11.0 million tons of bauxite Run of Mine (RoM) will be necessary. This bauxite must be washed prior being fed in the refinery, and so, the beneficiation plant will dispose 3.0 million tons (dry basis) of bauxite reject. The moisture of this material, at the moment of disposal, may vary from 88% to 25%, depending on the dewatering method. The moisture is a conditionant to the disposal, ranging from discharging the pulp in tailing ponds or back filling mined areas with mechanical dewatered reject. This study evaluated different ways of treatment, handling and disposal of the reject. The comparison was made in terms of Capital Expenditure (CapEx) and Operational Expenditure (OpEx). The compared indicator is the Net Present Value of the accumulated Free Cash Flow (FCF). This comparison allows to evaluate the best financial solution for the life of the project. The evaluated scenarios included combinations between ways of dewatering the reject (natural settling, thickening, supperfloculaltion and pressfiltering) and ways of diposing it (tailing ponds, heightened tailing ponds and mine back fill). The superflocculation option has the lowest CapEx while back filling mined areas with press filtered reject saves 30% of the value of the base case scenario: direct disposal in tailing ponds without previuos thickening.


Van Deursen C.,Votorantim Metais
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2015

The Alumina Rondon project consists of a bauxite mine, beneficiation plant and an alumina refinery, along with its associated logistics. It will be installed in the Rondon do Para municipality in the Para state - northern Brazil. The refinery production capacity is three million tons of alumina per year. For this production, 12 million tons of ROM will be beneficiated, resulting in 8 million tons of washed bauxite. The beneficiation process will occur in a single line plant at 1.500 tons per hour. During the early stages of the project engineering, a characterization study was conducted. Such a study consists in the evaluation and quantification several key aspects of the material needed to proper equipment sizing. To confirm the values of the laboratory scale studies, an industrial scale test was done in the operating bauxite beneficiation plant installed in the Mirai municipality located in the state of Minas Gerais - southeast Brazil. The test was done with two bulk samples obtained from two pilot scale mines. The main aspects evaluated were: product loss, product contamination and effects of residence time in the scrubber.


Franco T.T.,Votorantim Metais | Seno Jr. R.,Votorantim Metais
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2014

Precipitation is one the final Bayer Process stages in an alumina refinery and its objective is to crystallize the tri-hydrated alumina. Precipitation is influenced by liquor temperature and composition, residence time in the precipitators, seed charge and others. Many plant indicators are directly affected by the performance of this stage, for example, productivity and production. In order to predict the behavior of the precipitation process, a mathematical model was developed using process simulation software. This solution became an important tool in decision making and process control, in addition to operational improvement and technological developments. The current work presents the modeling development, results, challenges and the possibility to replicate the methodology in other refinery areas. Copyright © 2014 by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

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