Sivamalar S.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Dinesha T.R.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Gomathi S.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Pradeep A.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
And 7 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2017
Lack of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in resource-limited settings leads to the development of HIV drug resistance mutations, although WHO recommends viral load testing for monitoring as this helps in preserving future treatment options and also avoid unnecessary switching to more expensive drugs. A total of 101 patients attaining first-line treatment failure (FTF) were followed until second-line treatment failure (STF) to study the rate of accumulation of thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), their future drug options, and genetic evolution. The result shows that predominant nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations were M184V/I (87.3% in FTF and 79% in STF) followed by TAMs (53.4% in FTF and 54.5% in STF). The rate of accumulation of TAMs was higher for a patient with TAMI [0.015 TAM per person-month (TPPM)], TAMII (0.042 TPPM), and 1 (0.005 TPPM) or 2 TAMs (0.008 TPPM) compared with a patient with both TAMs and 3 or >3 TAMs. Future ART options show that >50% of the patients can be considered for choices to recycle NRTIs in the second-line, and third-line therapy. We conclude that the patients who initiated thymidine analogue-based first-line before 2010 can be very well opted for AZT- and TDF-based second-line regimen in the future. © 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.
Tebartz Van Elst L.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Krishnamoorthy E.S.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Schulze-Bonhage A.,University Hospital Freiburg |
Altenmuller D.-M.,University Hospital Freiburg |
And 3 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2011
Electroencephalographic abnormalities in the absence of any other major laboratory or imaging findings are a frequently encountered phenomenon in many psychiatric disorders. In some cases, clear-cut interictal epileptiform EEG abnormalities in patients with classic primary psychiatric disorders lead to referrals to epilepsy departments for diagnostic evaluation. Although video/EEG telemetry in these cases generally proves that there is no direct temporal link between the EEG pathologies and psychiatric symptoms, and therefore the psychiatric syndrome cannot be regarded as epilepsy, the relevance of the EEG abnormalities remains open to discussion. In this article we put forward the model of a paraepileptic pathomechanism, which might explain the pathogenetic role of such EEG pathologies, at least in subgroups of such patients. We propose that ictal or nonictal epileptic neurophysiological activity can lead to local area neuronal network inhibition (LANI). In this model clinical symptoms are related not to the excitatory epileptiform abnormalities themselves, but to the extent, site, and dynamics of the resulting local neuronal network inhibition. The LANI hypothesis is capable of explaining the complex relationship between EEG abnormalities and clinical symptoms in different neuropsychiatric syndromes and can be verified and falsified in empirical research. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Kamalakannan S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Gudlavalleti Venkata M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Prost A.,University College London |
Natarajan S.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016
Objective: To assess the rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors in Chennai, India, after discharge from the hospital. Design: Mixed-methods research design. Setting: Home-based. Participants: Stroke survivors (n=50; mean age ± SD, 58.9±10.5y) and primary caregivers of these stroke survivors (n=50; mean age ± SD, 43.1±11.8y) took part in the quantitative survey. A subsample of stroke survivors (n=12), primary caregivers (n=10), and health care professionals (n=8) took part in the qualitative in-depth interviews. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Rehabilitation needs after hospital discharge. Results: About 82% of the needs expressed by stroke survivors and 92% of the needs expressed by caregivers indicated that they had a substantial need for information. The proportion of financial needs reported by the stroke survivors and the caregivers was 70% and 75%, respectively. The qualitative data revealed major gaps in access to stroke rehabilitation services. Service providers identified availability and affordability of services as key problems. Stroke survivors and their caregivers identified lack of information about stroke as major barriers to accessibility of stroke rehabilitation services. Caregivers expressed a tremendous need for support to manage family dynamics. Conclusions: The study highlights a considerable unmet need for poststroke rehabilitation services. Given the lack of rehabilitation resources in India, developing an accessible, innovative, patient-centered, culturally sensitive rehabilitation intervention is of public health importance. It is crucial for low- and middle-income countries like India to develop technology-driven stroke rehabilitation strategies to meet the growing rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors. © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.
PubMed | Johns Hopkins University and Voluntary Health Services Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pharmacology | Year: 2016
Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) is the preferred second-line protease inhibitor (PI) option for HIV patients in resource-limited settings; its pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has not been much reported from India; hence, in this study, we have analyzed the incidence of ATV/r-associated ADRs in Southern Indian HIV-1-infected patients.In this prospective study, 111 HIV patients treated with ATV/r were included with at least 2 years follow-up visits for the emergence of hyperbilirubinemia, hypertransaminasemia, and serum creatinine elevation. The causality assessment was done based on the WHO scale for the causality assessment of suspected ADR.The incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia, hypertransaminasemia, and creatinine elevation was 28.6, 0.76, and 1.62 cases/100 person years, respectively. 3TC/FTC + TDF (odds ratio [OR]: 6.07, confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-27.98, Our study results show that patients starting ATV/r should be counseled for a good adherence in spite of the emergence of hyperbilirubinemia which generally reverts to normal range.
PubMed | National AIDS Research Institute ICMR, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Voluntary Health Services Hospital and Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viral immunology | Year: 2016
Vaccine immunogen with expanded T cell coverage for protection against HIV-1 diversity is the need of the hour. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of T cells to respond to a broad spectrum of potential T cell epitope (PTE) peptides containing variable as well as conserved sequences that would most accurately reflect immune responses to different circulating strains. Set of 320 PTE peptides were pooled in a matrix format that included 40 pools of 32 peptides per pool. These pools were used in interferon- enzyme-linked immunospot assay for screening and confirmation of HIV-1 PTE Gag-specific T cell immune responses in 34 HIV-1 seropositive Indian individuals. Deconvolute This software was used for result analysis. The dominant target in terms of magnitude and breadth of responses was observed to be the p24 subunit of Gag protein. Of the 34 study subjects, 26 (77%) showed a response to p24 PTE Gag peptides, 17 (50%) to p17, and 17 (50%) responded to p15 PTE peptides. The total breadth and magnitude of immune response ranged from 0.75 to 14.50 and 95.02 to 1,103 spot-forming cells/10
Chidambaram S.,Georgetown University |
Nair M.N.,Georgetown University |
Krishnan S.S.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Cai L.,Georgetown University |
And 2 more authors.
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2015
Objective Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are rare but serious complications after neurosurgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a modernized, resource-limited neurosurgical center in South Asia. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of all 363 neurosurgical cases performed between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, at a neurosurgical center in South Asia. Data from all operative neurosurgical cases during the 13-month period were included. Results Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated that 71 of the 363 surgical cases had low CSF glucose or CSF leukocytosis. These 71 cases were categorized as PCNSIs. The PCNSIs with positive CSF cultures (9.86%) all had gram-negative bacteria with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Escherichia coli (n = 1), or Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). The data suggest a higher rate of death (P = 0.031), a higher rate of CSF leak (P < 0.001), and a higher rate of cranial procedures (P < 0.001) among the infected patients and a higher rate of CSF leak among the patients with culture-positive infections (P = 0.038). Conclusions This study summarizes the prevalence, causative organism of PCNSI, and antibiotic usage for all of the neurosurgical cases over a 13-month period in a modernized yet resource-limited neurosurgical center located in South Asia. The results from this study highlight the PCNSI landscape in an area of the world that is often underreported in the neurosurgical literature because of the paucity of clinical neurosurgical research undertaken there. This study shows an increasing prevalence of gram-negative organisms in CSF cultures from PCNSIs, which supports a trend in the recent literature of increasing gram-negative bacillary meningitis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Subashini D.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Dinesha T.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Boobalan J.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
Samuel L.,Voluntary Health Services Hospital |
And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016
Background: Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) is the preferred second-line protease inhibitor (PI) option for HIV patients in resource-limited settings; its pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has not been much reported from India; hence, in this study, we have analyzed the incidence of ATV/r-associated ADRs in Southern Indian HIV-1-infected patients. Methods: In this prospective study, 111 HIV patients treated with ATV/r were included with at least 2 years follow-up visits for the emergence of hyperbilirubinemia, hypertransaminasemia, and serum creatinine elevation. The causality assessment was done based on the WHO scale for the causality assessment of suspected ADR. Results: The incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia, hypertransaminasemia, and creatinine elevation was 28.6, 0.76, and 1.62 cases/100 person years, respectively. 3TC/FTC + TDF (odds ratio [OR]: 6.07, confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-27.98, P = 0.015) nucleos (t) ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone and male sex (OR: 18.64, CI: 2.13-162.93, P = 0.0082) were found to be significantly associated with hypertransaminasemia and creatinine elevation, respectively. The causality assessment of ADR was "possible" for all the participants. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed hyperbilirubinemia to emerge earlier (mean duration: 32.18 months, CI: 24.9-39.4 months) followed by hypertransaminasemia and creatinine elevation. Hyperbilirubinemia is an expected side effect associated with ATV/r which is benign, transient, and does not predispose to hypertransaminasemia. Conclusion: Our study results show that patients starting ATV/r should be counseled for a good adherence in spite of the emergence of hyperbilirubinemia which generally reverts to normal range. © 2016 Indian Journal of Pharmacology Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.