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Nasibulina E.S.,Kazan State Medical University | Borisova A.V.,Kazan State Medical University | Akhmetov I.I.,Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture
Voprosy Pitaniia

Obesity is a multifactorial disease which depends on the interaction between genome and environment. Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) regulates lipid transport, intestinal absorption and metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the interrelation between the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism, body mass index and body fat mass and to study distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies of FABP2 gene in athletes and individuals who are not involved in sports. 315 athletes of different sport disciplines and levels and 612 controls (predominantly students) participated in the study. Genotyping for the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism was performed by PCR. Body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance method. The study did not confirm the association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with the risk of obesity and body fat mass. However, the frequency of the Thr54 allele was significantly higher in elite stayers (50,0%, p=0,025) and combat athletes (46,2%, p=0,013) in comparison with controls (32,2%). Thus, FABP2 gene Ala54Thrpolymorphism is associated with the predisposition to endurance athletic performance. Source

Ahmetov I.I.,Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture | Ahmetov I.I.,Kazan State Medical University | Fedotovskaya O.N.,Karolinska Institutet
Advances in Clinical Chemistry

Understanding the genetic architecture of athletic performance is an important step in the development of methods for talent identification in sport. Research concerned with molecular predictors has highlighted a number of potentially important DNA polymorphisms contributing to predisposition to success in certain types of sport. This review summarizes the evidence and mechanistic insights on the associations between DNA polymorphisms and athletic performance. A literature search (period: 1997-2014) revealed that at least 120 genetic markers are linked to elite athlete status (77 endurance-related genetic markers and 43 power/strength-related genetic markers). Notably, 11 (9%) of these genetic markers (endurance markers: ACE I, ACTN3 577X, PPARA rs4253778 G, PPARGC1A Gly482; power/strength markers: ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, AMPD1 Gln12, HIF1A 582Ser, MTHFR rs1801131 C, NOS3 rs2070744 T, PPARG 12Ala) have shown positive associations with athlete status in three or more studies, and six markers (CREM rs1531550 A, DMD rs939787 T, GALNT13 rs10196189 G, NFIA-AS1 rs1572312 C, RBFOX1 rs7191721 G, TSHR rs7144481 C) were identified after performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of African-American, Jamaican, Japanese, and Russian athletes. On the other hand, the significance of 29 (24%) markers was not replicated in at least one study. Future research including multicenter GWAS, whole-genome sequencing, epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic profiling and performing meta-analyses in large cohorts of athletes is needed before these findings can be extended to practice in sport. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gabbasov R.T.,Kazan State Medical University | Arkhipova A.A.,Kazan State Medical University | Borisova A.V.,Kazan State Medical University | Hakimullina A.M.,Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Physical Culture | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

Hypoxiainducible factor-1a (encoded by HIF1A gene) controls a number of genes that are implicated in various cellular functions including glycolysis and cell proliferation and differentiation. The rs11549465 C > T polymorphism in the HIF1A gene, which produces the amino acid substitution Pro582Ser, increases protein stability and transcriptional activity and, therefore, improves glucose metabolism. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between the HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism and elite strength athlete status. A total of 208 Russian strength athletes (122 weightlifters and 86 wrestlers) of regional or national competitive standard and 1,413 controls were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We found that the frequency of the HIF1A 582Ser variant was significantly higher in weightlifters (13.1%, p = 0.0031) and wrestlers (15.7%, p = 0.0002) compared with the controls (7.5%). Additionally, the highest (21.1%, p = 0.0052) frequency of the 582Ser variant was found in a group of elite strength athletes. Thus, our study provides evidence for an association between the HIF1A gene Pro582Ser polymorphism and elite strength athlete status. Although more replication studies are needed, the preliminary data suggest an opportunity to use the analysis of HIF1A polymorphism along with other gene variations and standard phenotypic assessment in sports selection. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Wang G.,University of Glasgow | Padmanabhan S.,University of Glasgow | Wolfarth B.,TU Munich | Fuku N.,Tokyo Metropolitan University | And 10 more authors.
Advances in Genetics

Numerous reports of genetic associations with performance- and injury-related phenotypes have been published over the past three decades; these studies have employed primarily the candidate gene approach to identify genes that associate with elite performance or with variation in performance-and/or injury-related traits. Although generally with small effect sizes and heavily prone to type I statistic error, the number of candidate genetic variants that can potentially explain elite athletic status, injury predisposition, or indeed response to training will be much higher than that examined by numerous biotechnology companies. Priority should therefore be given to applying whole genome technology to sufficiently large study cohorts of world-class athletes with adequately measured phenotypes where it is possible to increase statistical power. Some of the elite athlete cohorts described in the literature might suffice, and collectively, these cohorts could be used for replication purposes. Genome-wide association studies are ongoing in some of these cohorts (i.e., Genathlete, Russian, Spanish, Japanese, United States, and Jamaican cohorts), and preliminary findings include the identification of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; among more than a million SNPs analyzed) that associates with sprint performance in Japanese, American (i.e., African American), and Jamaican cohorts with a combined effect size of ~2.6 (P-value <5×10-7) and good concordance with endurance performance between select cohorts. Further replications of these signals in independent cohorts will be required, and any replicated SNPs will be taken forward for fine-mapping/targeted resequencing and functional studies to uncover the underlying biological mechanisms. Only after this lengthy and costly process will the true potential of genetic testing in sport be determined. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ahmetov I.I.,Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture | Rogozkin V.A.,St Petersburg Research Institute Of Physical Culture
Human Physiology

The purpose of this review was to provide an understanding of the role of PGC-1α in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and to describe the results of studies on the association of the polymorphism gene PPARGC1A with human muscle performance. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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