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Spacapan J.B.,National University of La Plata | Galland O.,University of Oslo | Leanza H.A.,National University of La Plata | Leanza H.A.,CONICET | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Geological Society | Year: 2016

Strike-slip faults are commonly assumed to influence magma transport and emplacement in the Earth’s crust. However, direct observations of magma conduits within strike-slip faults are lacking. Here we provide some of the first detailed field observations of dykes emplaced within strike-slip faults in the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. We show how fault planes within strike-slip fault zones affect the emplacement of dyke offshoots, resulting in complex dyke morphology. Our study also emphasizes the importance of pre-existing strike-slip fault array on the development of dyke swarms, showing that orientations of dyke swarms may not systematically relate to the principal tectonic stress axes. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by The Geological Society of London. All rights reserved.

Abdelmalak M.M.,University of Oslo | Meyer R.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Planke S.,University of Oslo | Planke S.,Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research VBPR | And 11 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2016

Improvements in sub-basalt imaging combined with petrological and geochemical observations from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 642E core provide new constraints on the initial breakup processes at the Vøring Margin. New and reprocessed high-quality seismic data allow us to identify a new seismic facies unit which we define as the Lower Series Flows. This facies unit is seismically characterized by wavy to continuous subparallel reflections with an internal disrupted and hummocky shape. Drilled lithologies, which we correlate to this facies unit, have been interpreted as subaqueous flows extruding and intruding into wet sediments. Locally, the top boundary of this facies unit is defined as a negative in polarity reflection and referred as the K-Reflection. This reflection can be correlated with the spatial extent of pyroclastic deposits, emplaced during transitional shallow marine to subaerial volcanic activities during the rift to drift transition. The drilled Lower Series Flows consist of peraluminous, cordierite bearing peperitic basaltic andesitic to dacitic flows interbedded with thick volcano-sedimentary deposits and intruded sills. The peraluminous geochemistry combined with available C (from calcite which fills vesicles and fractures), Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes data points toward upper crustal rock-mantle magma interactions with a significant contribution of organic carbon rich pelagic sedimentary material during crustal anatexis. From biostratigraphic analyses, Apectodinium augustum was found in the Lower Series Flows. This dinoflagellate cyst species is a marker for the Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). However, based on very high stable carbon isotope ratios of bulk organic matter we exclude that these strata represent the PETM. This implies that A. augustum was reworked into the early Eocene sediments of this facies unit. Crucially, this unit predates the breakup time of the Vøring Margin. Finally, a conceptual emplacement model for the Lower Series Flows facies unit is proposed. This model comprises several stages: (1) the emplacement of subaqueous peperitic basaltic andesitic flows intruding and/or extruding wet sediments; (2) a subaerial to shallow marine volcanism and extrusion of dacitic flows; (3) a proto-breakup phase with intense shallow marine to subaerial explosive volcanism responsible for pyroclastic flow deposits, which can be correlated with the seismic K-Reflection; and (4) the main breakup stage with intense transitional tholeiitic MORB-type volcanism and large subsidence concomitant with the buildup of the Seaward-Dipping Reflector wedge. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Abdelmalak M.M.,University of Oslo | Andersen T.B.,University of Oslo | Planke S.,University of Oslo | Planke S.,Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research VBPR | And 6 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2015

Understanding the structure of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) in passive margins is greatly enhanced by comparison with onshore analogues. The North Atlantic margins and the "fossil" system in the Scandinavian Caledonides show variations along strike between magma-rich and magma-poor margins, but are different in terms of exposure and degree of maturity. They both display the early stages of the Wilson cycle. Seismic reflection data from the mid-Norwegian margin combined with results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 104 drill core 642E allow for improved subbasalt imaging of the OCT. Below the Seaward-Dipping Reflector (SDR) sequences, vertical and inclined reflections are interpreted as dike feeder systems. High-amplitude reflections with abrupt termination and saucer-shaped geometries are interpreted as sill intrusions, implying the presence of sediments in the transition zone beneath the volcanic sequences. The transitional crust located below the SDR of the mid-Norwegian margin has a well-exposed analogue in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC). At Sarek (Sweden), hornfelsed sediments are truncated by mafic dike swarms with densities of 70%-80% or more. The magmatic domain extends for at least 800 km along the Caledonides, and probably reached the size of a large igneous province. It developed at ca. 600 Ma on the margin of the Iapetus Ocean, and was probably linked to the magma-poor hyperextended segment in the southern Scandinavian Caledonides. These parts of the SNC represent an onshore analogue to the deeper level of the mid-Norwegian margin, permitting direct observation and sampling and providing an improved understanding, particularly of the deeper levels, of present-day magma-rich margins. © 2015 Geological Society of America.

Leanza H.A.,CONICET | Mazzini A.,University of Oslo | Corfu F.,University of Oslo | Llambias E.J.,National University of La Plata | And 4 more authors.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

New radiometric U-Pb ages obtained on zircon crystals from Early Jurassic ash layers found within beds of the Chachil Limestone at its type locality in the Chachil depocentre (southern Neuquén Basin) confirm a Pliensbachian age (186.0 ± 0.4 Ma). Additionally, two ash layers found in limestone beds in Chacay Melehue at the Cordillera del Viento depocentre (central Neuquén Basin) gave Early Pliensbachian (185.7 ± 0.4 Ma) and earliest Toarcian (182.3 ± 0.4 Ma) U-Pb zircon ages. Based on these new datings and regional geological observations, we propose that the limestones cropping out at Chacay Melehue are correlatable with the Chachil Limestone. Recent data by other authors from limestones at Serrucho creek in the upper Puesto Araya Formation (Valenciana depocentre, southern Mendoza) reveal ages of 182.16 ± 0.6 Ma. Based on these new evidences, we consider the Chachil Limestone an important Early Jurassic stratigraphic marker, representing an almost instantaneous widespread flooding episode in western Gondwana. The unit marks the initiation in the Neuquén Basin of the Cuyo Group, followed by widespread black shale deposition. Accordingly, these limestones can be regarded as the natural seal of the Late Triassic -earliest Jurassic Precuyano Cycle, which represents the infill of halfgrabens and/or grabens related to a strong extensional regime. Paleontological evidence supports that during Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian times these limestones were deposited in western Gondwana in marine warm water environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Svensen H.,University of Oslo | Aarnes I.,University of Oslo | Podladchikov Y.Y.,University of Oslo | Jettestuen E.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Geosphere | Year: 2010

Sediment dikes are common within dolerite sill intrusions in the Karoo Basin in South Africa. The dikes are subvertical and as much as 2 m wide, sometimes with abundant fragments of sedimentary rocks and dolerite. The matrix consists of contact-metamorphic sandstone. There is no petrographic evidence for melting within the sediment dikes. The maximum temperature during heating is restricted to the plagioclase and biotite stability field, or above ~350 °C. Thermal modeling of a sandstone dike in a dolerite sill shows that a temperature of 350-450 °C is reached in the dike after a few hundred years of sill cooling. The calculated pressure history of a cooling sill and its contact aureole shows that substantial fluid pressure anomalies develop on a short time scale (1-15 yr) and are maintained for more than 100 yr. Calculated pressure anomalies in the sill (-7 to -22 MPa) and the aureole (4-22 MPa) are significant and may explain sill fracturing and sediment mobilization from the aureole into the sill. We conclude that sediment dikes represent common features of sedimentary basins with sill intrusions in which fluid pressure gradients have been high. Sediment dikes thus signify that pore fluids may escape from the aureoles on a short time scale, representing an intermediate situation between fluid loss during formation of microfractures and fluid loss during violent vent formation. © 2010 Geological Society of America.

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