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A total of 72 groundwater samples were collected from open wells and boreholes during pre- and post-monsoon periods in Tuticorin. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major cations, and anions in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The fluoride concentration was analyzed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatography. The geographic information system-based spatial distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. The fluoride concentration ranges between 0.16 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l during pre-monsoon and 0.2–3.2 mg/l during post-monsoon. Alkaline pH, low calcium concentrations, high groundwater temperatures, and semiarid climatic conditions of the study area may cause elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwater, by increasing the solubility of fluoride-bearing formations (fluoride). Linear trend analysis on seasonal and annual basis clearly depicted that fluoride pollution in the study area is increasing significantly. Fluoride concentrations showed positive correlations with those of Na+ and HCO3 − and negative correlations with Ca2+ and Mg2+. The alkaline waters were saturated with calcite in spite of the low Ca2+ concentrations. Northwestern parts of the study area are inherently enriched with fluorides threatening several ecosystems. The saturation index indicates that dissolution and precipitation contribute fluoride dissolution along with mixing apart from anthropogenic activities. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Mathavan A.,Vochidambaram College | Mathavan A.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Ramdass A.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Ramachandran M.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Rajagopal S.,Madurai Kamaraj University
International Journal of Chemical Kinetics | Year: 2015

The oxovanadium(IV)-salen ion catalyzed H2O2 oxidation of N,N-dimethylaniline forms N-oxide as the product of the reaction. The reaction follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the rate of the reaction is accelerated by electron donating groups present in the substrate as well as in the salen ligand. This peculiar substituent effect is accounted for in terms of rate determining bond formation between peroxo bond of the oxidant and the N-atom of the substrate in the transition state. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) shifts the λmax value of the oxidant to the red region and catalyzes reaction enormously. The cleavage of N£O bond by vanadium complex leads to moderate yield of the product. But the percentage yield of the product becomes excellent in the presence of TCA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Selvam S.,Vochidambaram College | Magesh N.S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Sivasubramanian P.,Vochidambaram College | Soundranayagam J.P.,Vochidambaram College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2014

The present study was carried out to decipher the groundwater potential zones in the coastal terrain of Tuticorin using Indian remote sensing satellite IRS-1C, LlSS-III data on a 1:50,000 scale and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. The thematic layers such as lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil and rainfall were generated and integrated to prepare the groundwater prospect and recharge map of the study area. These layers were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in Arc GIS 9.2 software. Subjective weights are assigned to the respective thematic layers and overlaid in GIS platform for the identification of potential groundwater zones within the area. These potential zones were categorized as ‘high’, ‘moderate’, and ‘low’ zones with respect to the assigned weightage of different thematic layers. The resultant map shows that 10% of the area has highest recharge potentials, this is due to the percolation of precipitated water into the sub-surface rocks, followed by 65% of the area with moderate groundwater recharge potentiality, and rest of the area has low recharge potential. The study highlights that the total average annual precipitated water (877 mm) is responsible for natural recharge of the aquifers in the Tuticorin area. © 2014, Geological Society of India. Source

Balasubramanian N.,Vochidambaram College | Sivasubramanian P.,Vochidambaram College | Soundranayagam J.P.,Vochidambaram College | Chandrasekar N.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Gowtham B.,Presidency College at Chennai
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

The hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in Kadaladi Block of Ramanathapuram district, Tamilnadu have been evaluated based on different indices for drinking, industrial and irrigational purposes using “HYCH” program. Groundwater samples were collected in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon of 2012 from 36 locations and analyzed for major ions. The abundance of the major ions is in the order of Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl− > HCO3 − > SO4 2− > NO3 − > PO4 3−. Interpretation of analytical data shows that most part of the study area is occupied with groundwater having higher TDS which is not suitable for drinking purpose. High to very high nature of hardness and corrosivity restricts groundwater use for the industrial purpose. SAR and RSC indicate that 70 % of the groundwater is suitable for irrigation in both the seasons. Spatial distribution map of USSL salinity classification shows that 70 % of the area comes under high to very high saline nature and medium to high sodium content makes the groundwater which is only suitable for high tolerant crops. Above statement is further supported by Schoeller and Stuyfzand classification, where most of the samples fall under the Type IV water and Brackish to Hyperhaline water. Gibbs and Langlier Saturation Index shows that 70 % of the groundwater sample chemistry is due to rock–water interaction followed by evaporation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Selvam S.,Vochidambaram College | Venkatramanan S.,Pukyong National University | Chung S.Y.,Pukyong National University | Singaraja C.,Presidency College at Chennai
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2016

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the groundwater quality in Dindugal district of Tamil Nadu based on the water quality index by geographic information system (GIS) and statistical analysis. This area consists of 80 functional tanneries around Dindigul town with a capacity to process about 200 Mt of hides and skins as leather. In 13 villages, as many as 1090 houses were damaged by tannery contamination. A total of 66 groundwater samples were collected to identify the geochemical sources and contamination. The order of major cations is Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3 > F > PO4. CaCl2, MgCl2, and (CaHCO3)2 types suggested that the mixing of high-salinity water was caused by irrigation return flow, domestic wastewater, and septic tank effluents, with existing water followed by ion exchange reactions. Moreover, Gibbs plots indicated that groundwater contamination was derived from the weathering of granitic gneisses as well as the leaching of evaporated and crystallized ions from agricultural and industrial effluents. The water quality index (WQI) exhibited 8 % of the groundwater samples were not suitable for drinking purpose. The GIS maps showed that the poor water quality decreased toward the southern part of the study area. WQI of TDS, fluoride, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate were high in groundwater. Multivariate statistical analyses (principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA)) suggested that the groundwater chemistry was changed by the weathering of source rocks ion exchange and leaching of inorganic components and addition from anthropogenic effluents. Finally, it is thought that the monitoring and assessment works are very useful to understand the degree and sources of groundwater contamination. © 2016, Saudi Society for Geosciences. Source

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