Thoothukudi, India
Thoothukudi, India

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Magesh N.S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Krishnakumar S.,Tamil University | Chandrasekar N.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Soundranayagam J.P.,Vo Chidambaram College
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2013

The quality of groundwater was assessed by determining the physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS and TH) and major ions concentration (HCO3, Cl, FSO4, Ca, Mg, Na and K) around Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India. The groundwater samples were collected from 59 bore wells covering the entire study area and analyzed using standard methods. The GIS mapping technique were adopted to highlight the spatial distribution pattern of physicochemical parameters and major ion concentration in the groundwater. Gibbs diagram reveals that the source of major ions is predominantly derived from rock-water interaction and evaporation dominance process. The salt combinations of the aquifers are dominated by CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl, mixed CaMgHCO3 and CaCl facies type due to leaching and dissolution process of weathered rocks. The Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCMEWQI) suggests that most of the groundwater quality falls under good to marginal category. The statistical analysis indicates that the presence of major ions and physicochemical parameters are chiefly controlled by rock-water interaction and residence time of the groundwater. However, the major nutrient like nitrite in the groundwater probably comes from anthropogenic process. Based on the groundwater quality standards, majority of the samples are suitable for drinking purposes except few in the study area. © 2012 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Selvam S.,VO Chidambaram College | Manimaran G.,VO Chidambaram College | Sivasubramanian P.,VO Chidambaram College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2013

The objective of our study is to investigate the nitrate pollution vulnerability of groundwater aquifers in the coastal regions of Tuticorin Corporation, South Tamil Nadu, India. In the last few decades nitrate concentrations in groundwater have increased dramatically. Groundwater contamination by nitrate (NO3) is a global problem and is most often associated with leachates derived from fertilizers and animal or human wastes. Twenty groundwater samples were analyzed form the study area. The water quality parameters were investigated for summer (May, 2010) and winter (December, 2010) seasons and were compared with the standard values given by WHO and ICMR. The hydro-chemical analysis of these water samples reveals that 12 samples exceeding the permissible limit of WHO (50mg/l) which is due to the use of improper disposal of sewage and nitrogenous fertilizers in the study area. Linear Trent Analysis on seasonal and annual basis clearly depicted that nitrate pollution in the study area is increasing significantly.

Lakshmi A.,Vo Chidambaram College | Anandha Raj J.,Alagappa University | Gopu G.,Alagappa University | Arumugam P.,District Environmental Engineer | Vedhi C.,Vo Chidambaram College
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

3,4-Ethylenedioxy thiophene is polymerized electrochemically in p-toluene sulphonic acid (a), phosphate buffer (b) and borax buffer (c) on glassy carbon and Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface. The scan rate dependence studies of the polymer redox processes were carried out. A linear relationship was observed between the peak current and scan rate with good correlation, r2 = 0.998 indicating adsorption controlled behaviour of polymer film. The SEM photograph showed the differences in surface morphology of polymers modified electrode. The XRD studies revealed semi-crystalline nature of doped polymers. Spectroelectrochemical behaviors of Indium tin oxide coated glass electrode covered with thin film of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene a, b, c in 0.1 M KCl were obtained at different electrode potentials between 1100 and 200 nm. Poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-a, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-b and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-c film exhibits transparent clear blue, opaque violet and dark maroon colours respectively at reduced potential. Further probing the potential between 400 mV and 800 mV coated film shows greenish blue colour for poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-a, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-b and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene -c shows opaque violet and yellowish maroon colours respectively. Increasing the applied potential between 1000 mV and 1200 mV over oxidation of polymer film shows dark greenish blue for poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene -a, dark brown for poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene-b and transparent red colour for poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene-c. Electrochromic parameters such as colouration efficiency, response time and optical contrast were calculated for all three films. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Suneetha R.R.B.,Vo Chidambaram College | Chinnapiyan V.,Vo Chidambaram College
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Aniline was polymerized with mmt (Montmorrillonite) by chemical oxidation method using potassium perdisulphate. The solubility of the chemically prepared polymer-clay nanocomposite was ascertained and it showed good solubility in DMSO and DMF. The Pani-mmt nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectral studies. Amine vibration peak observed at 1593 cm-1 was shifted to lower wave numbers when the polymer-clay nanocomposites were formed. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of nano sized (26 nm) crystalline nanocomposite. SEM analysis showed mixed granular nature of the polymer-clay nanocomposite in which polymer was intercalated with the clay. EDAX analysis shows the presence of Na, Mg Al, Si, C and N. Cyclic Voltammetric studies exhibit good adherent behaviour on electrode surface at pH 1.0. It exhibited two oxidation peaks at 0.360V and 0.638V and two reduction peaks at 0.431V & 0.103V. Chronoamperometric and chronocoulometric studies were also carried out at inert as well as oxidation atmosphere. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Gopu G.,Alagappa University | Muralidharan B.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Vedhi C.,Vo Chidambaram College | Manisankar P.,Alagappa University
Ionics | Year: 2012

Three analgesics, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyrone were determined by stripping voltammetry using nanosized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified glassy carbon electrode. The cyclic voltammetric behavior of the three analgesics was studied in aqueous acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions. One well-defined oxidation peak each for acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid and three oxidation peaks for dipyrone were observed in the cyclic voltammograms. The influence of pH, scan rate, and concentration revealed irreversible diffusion controlled reaction. A systematic study of the experimental parameters that affect the differential pulse stripping voltammetric response was carried out. Calibration was made under maximum peak current conditions. The scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed good accumulation of the drugs on the electrode surface. The range of study for both acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid were 0. 015-0. 4 and dipyrone was 0. 025-0. 4 μg/ml. The lower limit of determination for both acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid was 0. 01 μg/mL and for dipyrone was 0. 02 μg/mL. The suitability of the method for the determination of the three analgesics in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples was also ascertained. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Muthuchudarkodi R.R.,Vo Chidambaram College | Vedhi C.,Vo Chidambaram College
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Nano CuO-ZrO2 mixed oxides were prepared by wet chemical method by mixing equimolar solutions (0.45M) of cupric chloride (1.92g) and Zirconium oxychloride (3.63g) in aqueous Sodium hydroxide and refluxed at elevated temperature. The prepared nano CuO-ZrO2 mixed oxides were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, EDAX, XRD, DSC and CV studies. From XRD studies the size of the nano CuO and ZrO2 are found to be 25 and 9.5nm respectively through Debye-Scherrer's formula. The sizes of the CuO-ZrO2 mixed oxide particles have also been characterized and the average grain size of the particles is found to be 24nm in diameter. The nano particle composition and morphology of CuO, ZrO2 and mixed oxide have been analysed by EDAX set up attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM). EDAX analysis indicates the presence of Cu, Zr and O. SEM morphological studies of CuO, ZrO2 and mixed CuO-ZrO2 revealed the particle distribution with uniform granular structure. Cyclic Voltammetric studies exhibit good adherent behaviour on electrode surface and good electroactivity at pH 1.0. Nano CuO, ZrO2 and mixed CuO-ZrO2 under goes oxidation at 0.224V, 0.092V -0.072V and0.198V respectively. DSC thermogram of CuO, ZrO2 and mixed CuO-ZrO2 are recorded at the heating rate of 10°/ min. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the crystallization temperature (Tc) and melting point (TM) of the mixed oxide are determined from the DSC curve. The Tg value of CuO-ZrO2 mixed oxide is -50° C the Tc value is 20° C and melts at a temperature of 116° C. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Lakshmi A.,Vo Chidambaram College | Vedhi C.,Vo Chidambaram College
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2013

Conducting poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was synthesized electrochemically in aqueous medium and characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Tafel, SEM and TEM. The antidepressants drugs diazepam (DIZ), nitrazepam (NITZ) and imipramine (IMI) were analyzed on nanosize P3HT modified glassy carbon electrode. The voltammetric behavior of the three antidepressants was studied in aqueous acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions. One well-defined reduction peak each for DIZ and NITZ and one oxidation peak for IMI were observed in the cyclic voltammograms. The influence of pH, scan rate on peak current was studied extensively. A systematic study of the experimental parameters that affect the differential pulse stripping voltammetric response was carried out and optimized conditions which yield maximum peak current were arrived. The calibration was made under optimum conditions. The range of study for DIZ, NITZ and IMI was 100-1100, 150-1100 and 200-1300 μg/L and lower limit of determination was 75, 100, and 150 μg/L respectively. The suitability of themethod for the determination of the three antidepressants in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples was also ascertained. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society.

Muthulakshmi A.,Vo Chidambaram College | Jothibai Margret R.,Pope s college | Mohan V.R.,Ethnopharmacology Unit
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

Feronia elephantum belongs to the family Rutaceae is well known in Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The present investigation was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components of leaves and bark of F. elephantum using GC-MS analysis. 18 components from leaves and 14 components from bark of the above said plant were identified. The prevailing compounds in the ethanol extract of leaves of F. elephantum were 7- Norbornadienyl t-butyl ether (17.26%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1- heptanol (11.40%), 1- Octanol,2-butyl (8.47%), Phenol, 4-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]- (4.56%), 2,3- Dimethylquinolin-4(1H)-one (3.58%), Ethyl iso-allocholate (1.63%). The ethanol extract of F. elephantum bark contained, 2-Propenenitrile, 3-(3.4-dimethoxyphenyl)-(60.72%) was found as major component followed by phenol, 4-(3-hydroxy-I-propenyl)-2-methoxy-(9.35%), 3-(2-NAcetyl- N-methylaminoethyl)indol (1.15%), cholesta-8,24-dine-3-ol, 4-methyl-(3a'- 4a')- (0.86%) as the major components.

Selvam S.,Vo Chidambaram College
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2016

Geoelectrical resistivity method involving vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out in a sedimentary environment to determine the suitability of the method for sub-surface groundwater investigations. The EC and TDS hydrochemical data in the study area clearly showed the influence of seawater intrusion. The abundance of the major cations and anions are in the following order, Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg 2+ > K+ = Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > CO3 > NO3 > PO4. Results suggest that the groundwater in this study area is very hard and alkaline in nature. As indicated by Piper trilinear diagram, NaCl and Ca2+ - Mg2+–Cl- - SO4 2- facies are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the groundwater of Pearl city. The VES method by Schlamberger electrode array was applied in 12 locations, which is expected to represent the whole area. The resistivity meter (aquameter CRM 5OO) was used to collect the VES data by employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, with half current electrode spacing (AB/2) ranging from 2 to 180 m and the potential electrode (MN) from 1 to 50 m. The resistivity data is then interpreted by WINSEV 1-D inversion program geoelectric software to entirely describe the aquifer system as well as the occurrence of groundwater. The outputs of sub-surface layers with resistivities and thickness presented in contour maps and 2-D views by using SURFER software were created. Accordingly, three zones with different resistivity values were detected, corresponding to three different formations: (1) a transition zone of sandy soil (aeolian deposits) thick formation, (2) strata’s saturated with fresh groundwater in the east disturbed by the presence of sandy shell limestone horizons, (3) a water-bearing formation in the west containing low saltwater horizons. The bedrock is encountered at an average depth of 95m. This study indicates that the groundwater reservoirs are mainly confined to the alluvial aquifer. © 2016, Geological Society of India.

Selvam S.,Vo Chidambaram College | Manimaran G.,Vo Chidambaram College | Sivasubramanian P.,Vo Chidambaram College | Balasubramanian N.,Vo Chidambaram College | Seshunarayana T.,Indian National Institute of Engineering
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Groundwater is a vital source of water for industrial, domestic and agricultural activities in Tuticorin city due to lack of surface water resources; groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking usage were evaluated. A total of 72 groundwater samples were collected from open wells and boreholes during pre and post-monsoon period. Samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties, major cation and major anions in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The geographic information system-based spatial distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 9.2. These maps are classified as desirable, maximum permissible and the values that exceed maximum permissible limit are termed as not permissible prescribed by the WHO (2004). From the Piper plot, which gives the cation chemistry, the concentration of the alkalies (Na+ and K+) exceeds the alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and those of strong acids exceeds weak acids. In the case of anions, during the two periods strong acid shows dominance over weak acid and HCO3 - and Cl- have influences almost equal to Na+, which indicate the saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifer of the study area. A Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) map was also generated with the GIS technique to better understand the water portability over space. The categories of water quality evaluated by CCME WQI values of major part of the study area fall under fair category during PRM and good category during the POM period. The CCME WQI is a very useful and an efficient tool to summarize and to report on the monitoring data to the decision makers in order to understand the status of the groundwater quality. Finally, the study concludes that the groundwater quality is impaired by man-made activities, and proper management plan is necessary to protect valuable groundwater resources in Tuticorin city. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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