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Thoothukudi, India

Selvam S.,Vo Chidambaram College
Journal of the Geological Society of India

Geoelectrical resistivity method involving vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out in a sedimentary environment to determine the suitability of the method for sub-surface groundwater investigations. The EC and TDS hydrochemical data in the study area clearly showed the influence of seawater intrusion. The abundance of the major cations and anions are in the following order, Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg 2+ > K+ = Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > CO3 > NO3 > PO4. Results suggest that the groundwater in this study area is very hard and alkaline in nature. As indicated by Piper trilinear diagram, NaCl and Ca2+ - Mg2+–Cl- - SO4 2- facies are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the groundwater of Pearl city. The VES method by Schlamberger electrode array was applied in 12 locations, which is expected to represent the whole area. The resistivity meter (aquameter CRM 5OO) was used to collect the VES data by employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, with half current electrode spacing (AB/2) ranging from 2 to 180 m and the potential electrode (MN) from 1 to 50 m. The resistivity data is then interpreted by WINSEV 1-D inversion program geoelectric software to entirely describe the aquifer system as well as the occurrence of groundwater. The outputs of sub-surface layers with resistivities and thickness presented in contour maps and 2-D views by using SURFER software were created. Accordingly, three zones with different resistivity values were detected, corresponding to three different formations: (1) a transition zone of sandy soil (aeolian deposits) thick formation, (2) strata’s saturated with fresh groundwater in the east disturbed by the presence of sandy shell limestone horizons, (3) a water-bearing formation in the west containing low saltwater horizons. The bedrock is encountered at an average depth of 95m. This study indicates that the groundwater reservoirs are mainly confined to the alluvial aquifer. © 2016, Geological Society of India. Source

Magesh N.S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Krishnakumar S.,Tamil University | Chandrasekar N.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Soundranayagam J.P.,Vo Chidambaram College
Arabian Journal of Geosciences

The quality of groundwater was assessed by determining the physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS and TH) and major ions concentration (HCO3, Cl, FSO4, Ca, Mg, Na and K) around Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India. The groundwater samples were collected from 59 bore wells covering the entire study area and analyzed using standard methods. The GIS mapping technique were adopted to highlight the spatial distribution pattern of physicochemical parameters and major ion concentration in the groundwater. Gibbs diagram reveals that the source of major ions is predominantly derived from rock-water interaction and evaporation dominance process. The salt combinations of the aquifers are dominated by CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl, mixed CaMgHCO3 and CaCl facies type due to leaching and dissolution process of weathered rocks. The Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCMEWQI) suggests that most of the groundwater quality falls under good to marginal category. The statistical analysis indicates that the presence of major ions and physicochemical parameters are chiefly controlled by rock-water interaction and residence time of the groundwater. However, the major nutrient like nitrite in the groundwater probably comes from anthropogenic process. Based on the groundwater quality standards, majority of the samples are suitable for drinking purposes except few in the study area. © 2012 Saudi Society for Geosciences. Source

Gopu G.,Alagappa University | Muralidharan B.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Vedhi C.,Vo Chidambaram College | Manisankar P.,Alagappa University

Three analgesics, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyrone were determined by stripping voltammetry using nanosized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified glassy carbon electrode. The cyclic voltammetric behavior of the three analgesics was studied in aqueous acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions. One well-defined oxidation peak each for acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid and three oxidation peaks for dipyrone were observed in the cyclic voltammograms. The influence of pH, scan rate, and concentration revealed irreversible diffusion controlled reaction. A systematic study of the experimental parameters that affect the differential pulse stripping voltammetric response was carried out. Calibration was made under maximum peak current conditions. The scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed good accumulation of the drugs on the electrode surface. The range of study for both acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid were 0. 015-0. 4 and dipyrone was 0. 025-0. 4 μg/ml. The lower limit of determination for both acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid was 0. 01 μg/mL and for dipyrone was 0. 02 μg/mL. The suitability of the method for the determination of the three analgesics in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples was also ascertained. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Muthulakshmi A.,Vo Chidambaram College | Jothibai Margret R.,Pope s college | Mohan V.R.,Ethnopharmacology Unit
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Feronia elephantum belongs to the family Rutaceae is well known in Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The present investigation was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components of leaves and bark of F. elephantum using GC-MS analysis. 18 components from leaves and 14 components from bark of the above said plant were identified. The prevailing compounds in the ethanol extract of leaves of F. elephantum were 7- Norbornadienyl t-butyl ether (17.26%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1- heptanol (11.40%), 1- Octanol,2-butyl (8.47%), Phenol, 4-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]- (4.56%), 2,3- Dimethylquinolin-4(1H)-one (3.58%), Ethyl iso-allocholate (1.63%). The ethanol extract of F. elephantum bark contained, 2-Propenenitrile, 3-(3.4-dimethoxyphenyl)-(60.72%) was found as major component followed by phenol, 4-(3-hydroxy-I-propenyl)-2-methoxy-(9.35%), 3-(2-NAcetyl- N-methylaminoethyl)indol (1.15%), cholesta-8,24-dine-3-ol, 4-methyl-(3a'- 4a')- (0.86%) as the major components. Source

Lakshmi A.,Vo Chidambaram College | Anandha Raj J.,Alagappa University | Gopu G.,Alagappa University | Arumugam P.,District Environmental Engineer | Vedhi C.,Vo Chidambaram College
Electrochimica Acta

3,4-Ethylenedioxy thiophene is polymerized electrochemically in p-toluene sulphonic acid (a), phosphate buffer (b) and borax buffer (c) on glassy carbon and Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface. The scan rate dependence studies of the polymer redox processes were carried out. A linear relationship was observed between the peak current and scan rate with good correlation, r2 = 0.998 indicating adsorption controlled behaviour of polymer film. The SEM photograph showed the differences in surface morphology of polymers modified electrode. The XRD studies revealed semi-crystalline nature of doped polymers. Spectroelectrochemical behaviors of Indium tin oxide coated glass electrode covered with thin film of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene a, b, c in 0.1 M KCl were obtained at different electrode potentials between 1100 and 200 nm. Poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-a, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-b and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-c film exhibits transparent clear blue, opaque violet and dark maroon colours respectively at reduced potential. Further probing the potential between 400 mV and 800 mV coated film shows greenish blue colour for poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-a, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-b and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene -c shows opaque violet and yellowish maroon colours respectively. Increasing the applied potential between 1000 mV and 1200 mV over oxidation of polymer film shows dark greenish blue for poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene -a, dark brown for poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene-b and transparent red colour for poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene-c. Electrochromic parameters such as colouration efficiency, response time and optical contrast were calculated for all three films. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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