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Jain S.,VNS Group of Institutions
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

In this study, the antibacterial potency of herbal ointments formulated with methanolic extract of Butea frondosa was evaluated. The preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanolic extracts of Butea frondosa was determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the Agar cup plate method. The antibacterial activity of the extract was predominantly against Gram-positive organisms. Herbal ointments were prepared by incorporating the methanolic extract of Butea frondosa (5 % w/w) into emulsifying ointment and simple ointment bases and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial efficacy. The formulation containing Butea frondosa extract in aqueous cream showed comparatively better antibacterial activity than the other formulations in the following order: emulsifying ointment > simple ointment. This study shows that Butea frondosa has antibacterial activity and also has high potential as antibacterial agent when formulated as ointment for topical use and could therefore explain the successes claimed in the folk use of the plant in the treatment of microbial infection. © RJPT All right reserved. Source

Srivastava A.K.,Sapience Bio analytical Research Laboratory | Singour P.K.,VNS Group of Institutions | Gouda P.,Khallikote Autonomous College
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and B) play a critical role in the metabolism of intracellular neurotransmitters of the central nervous system. For decades, MAO inhibitors have proven their clinical efficacy as potential drug targets for several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Use of first generation non selective MAO inhibitors as neuropsychiatric drugs elicited several side effects like hypertensive crisis and cheese reaction. Therefore their use is now limited due to non-selectivity towards MAO isoforms and inhibition of metabolizing enzymes like cytochrome P450. Development of selective and specific MAO inhibitors like moclobemide, toloxatone improves their efficacy as disease-modifying effects in monotherapy as well as adjunctive therapy. Recently a lot of research has been done to elucidate the pharmacological potential of medicinal plants and their isolated bioactive constituents having MAO inhibitory activity. Herbs containing MAO inhibitors are extensively used for the development of potent synthetic drugs and as safe and effective alternatives to the available synthetic drugs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as depression, Parkinson and Alzheimer’s. In several diseases like Parkinson natural MAO inhibitors prevented the neuron denaturalization by their dual action via enhancing neurotransmission of dopamine as well as lowering the generation of free radicals and toxins. Currently development of selective MAO inhibitors is still under study to achieve more effective therapies by using Computer Aided Drug Designing, Ligand-based models and structure-activity hypothesis. These approaches also facilitate understanding the interaction of newly designed molecule with MAO enzymes and the rationalization of probable mechanisms of action. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Jain A.,P.A. College | Jain S.,VNS Group of Institutions
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2013

Solubilization of poorly soluble drugs is a frequently encountered challenge in screening studies of new chemical entities as well as in formulation design and development. Solubility of some drugs is very less; these drug molecules are often lipophilic and hence dissolution may be a problem in drug absorption from solid oral dosage forms. The increasing interest of the technology of dosage form with natural biopolymers has become the reason for undertaking present investigation on the possibility of modification of guar gum application in the preparation of an oral solid dosage form of a poorly water soluble drug. Present study examines the effect of modified guar gum on the solubility of a poorly water-soluble Nevirapine. Modified guar gum was prepared using heat treatment (110-120°C for 2 hours) method. It was characterized for viscosity and swelling index etc. The physical and co-grinding mixtures of Nevirapine with modified guar gum were prepared in 1:4 drugs to gum ratio. The physical and co-grinding mixtures were characterized by DSC and FT-IR study. The studies confirmed that there was no interaction between drug and carrier. Prepared mixtures were evaluated for solubility study and in vitro dissolution studies. The results of present investigation indicated that modified guar gum can be a used for the development of oral dosage form with increased solubility and hence improved dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug. © RJPT. Source

Swami P.D.,Samrat Ashok Technological Institute | Sharma R.,Samrat Ashok Technological Institute | Jain A.,Samrat Ashok Technological Institute | Swami D.K.,VNS Group of Institutions
Speech Communication | Year: 2015

Abstract This paper focuses on employing adaptive scales for computation of perceptually scaled continuous wavelet transform coefficients (CWT) and adaptive thresholding of these coefficients for speech enhancement. The adaptive scales and thresholds both were decided on the basis of the noise level of the noisy speech signal. The CWT coefficients were scaled perceptually and the proposed algorithm suggests selection of number of scales required for analysis on the basis of noise level. The CWT coefficients were then thresholded and for this a novel method of generating adaptive thresholds that too depends on the noise level of the noisy signal has also been proposed. Speech signals were acquired from the TIMIT database and evaluation of the proposed method is done by corrupting these signals by white Gaussian noise (at -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dB SNRs) and four real world noises (each at 0 dB SNR); pink, babble, car interior and F16 cockpit noise from the NOISEX-92 database. Enhancement results are compared on the basis of signal to noise ratio (SNR), segmental SNR (SSNR), spectral distortion (SD) and perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ). Results of the proposed method are evaluated against Ephraim Malah filtering, Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) thresholding of bionic wavelet transform (BWT) coefficients (BWT-SURE), Wiener filtering (WF), perceptually scaled wavelet packet transform (PWT), multi-model WF and multi-model sparse code shrinkage (MultiSCS) enhancement methods. For the white Gaussian noise case, at all noise levels, SNR and SSNR of the proposed method were better than all the methods under comparison. SD and PESQ results were lower than multiSCS method at 10 dB SNR but better at 15 dB and 20 dB SNRs. For the babble noise case, the obtained results were lower than Ephraim Malah but better than BWT-SURE. SNR and SSNR results for the cockpit noise were comparable with Ephraim Malah and BWT-SURE while for the pink noise case, the proposed method gives the best results. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Patel K.K.,VNS Group of Institutions | Toppo F.A.,VNS Group of Institutions | Singour P.K.,VNS Group of Institutions | Chaurasiya P.K.,VNS Group of Institutions | Pawar R.S.,VNS Group of Institutions
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to investigate effect of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Indian Lotus) on haematological parameters in anaemic rats. Haematopoietic activity of ethanolic extract of aerial part of plant was performed using cyclophosphamide (CP) at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg body weight i.p. and haloperidol (HP) at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight induced aplastic and iron deficiency anaemia in rats, respectively. A morphological study of blood cells was performed along with phytochemical screening and iron estimation of extract by qualitative test and spectrophotometric method. The results of evaluation of the haematopoietic activity induced by cyclophosphamide and haloperidol showed that the plant extract diminish the activity of cyclophosphamide and haloperidol at the 200 mg/kg dose. Qualitative test of extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, carbohydrates, protein and iron. Iron content was estimated by using spectrophotometric method. The data from results supports the use of N. nucifera Gaertn. In traditional medicine for their haematopoietic activity. Source

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