Isiyanov O.A.,Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union |
Silkin A.A.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Rubtsov S.K.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Seleznev A.V.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015
In view of the growth of thin ore body mining at the Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union, the authors have undertaken the research and the related substantiation of rational groups of small-size equipment and selective ore breaking and excavation aimed at minimization of ore dilution, increase in price of marketable uranium ore as compared with breaking-out in bulk and, thus, satisfactory efficiency of mining of ore bodies less than 1.5 m thick. Based on the analysis of small-size drilling units and load-haul-dumpers, which are in operation in mines and manufactured by various plants, five alternatives of machine grouping are offered for operation in various cross-section stopes and in various working conditions, and the optimum machine group is selected by the criteria of productivity, reliability and cost. Technologies of selective drilling-and-blasting, actual mining and separate ore and barren rock haulage are described. Aiming at higher efficient selective mining of thin ore bodies, the article makes recommendations on: flow chart of scenarios of selective breaking and mining of ore and barren rocks; improved alternatives of downward horizontal slicing with shothole blasting and solidifying backfilling; mining method for thin veins with selective extraction of ore by short vertical cuts (columns) with shothole blasting and barren rock shrinkage in mined-out area. Economical evaluation of crude and high-grade ore extraction from thin ore bodies is given with regard to the recommended technological innovations.
Svyatetsky V.S.,ARMZ Uranium Holding Co. |
Kuzmin E.V.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Starodumov A.V.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Velichko D.V.,Russian State Geological Prospecting University
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015
In terms of the ground and mine-technical conditions in the Streltsovsk uranium ore field, the authors substantiate applicability of high-productive room and pillar mining with remote-control load-haul-dumpers to transport broken ore from rooms with unstable roof and walls pre-reinforced with cable bolts and cement grouting. The article presents flow charts, parameters and structural elements of pre-reinforcement (before ore breaking) of adjacent enclosing rock mass with the stability category II-IV estimated by the enclosing rock subsidence at the interface with the exposed mined-out void (VNIMI classification). In terms of two extraction blocks of the Argun deposit, the authors describe studies aimed at forecasting of geomechanical parameters of rocks and estimating stability of exposures in stopes using advanced program products (IT technologies) and FEM modeling. From the research data, it is proved that pre-reinforcement of the adjacent enclosing rocks with the stability category III allows the rock mass reclassification as the stability category II, which excludes hazardous rockfalls by setting lower standards for strains and displacements at the interface between stopes and rock mass. Thus, applicability of efficient room and pillar method to uranium ore extraction with pre-reinforcement of unstable adjacent rock mass has been substantiated. The useful contribution to the work is made by A. M. Ioffe, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Principal Researcher, VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC.
Lobanov N.F.,National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management NO RAO |
Beigul V.P.,National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management NO RAO |
Lopatin P.V.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Ozersky A.Yu.,Krasnoyarskgeologia JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015
Under planning is an underground research laboratory to assess feasibility of safe deep disposal of radioactive waste in Nizhnekansky Massif composed of hard rocks in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The paper gives a description and basic results of four research stages since the early 1990s aimed at choosing the area for the underground laboratory. The studies involved experts from scientific and design institutions engaged in the same research area under the supervision of the Russian Academy of Sciences and geological agencies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Based on the research, with stage-wise elimination of areas to be chosen and enhancement of the research efficiency, the area suitable for underground laboratory has been selected. At the first stage, based on the data on regional geology and tectonics, gravimetric analysis and magnetic survey, satellite and aerophoto image interpretation, out of 20 potential areas, first five and then two areas were selected for the construction of underground RAW isolation facility: Verkhneitatsky and Yeniseisky areas. This stage research finished with the comparative geochemical and geophysical analyses. At the second stage, final choice of an area was made for its detail studies. Based on the comparative analysis of geological and economic-geographical characteristics, the preference was given to Yeniseisky area 6 km away from the town of Zheleznogorsk and near 4.5 km away of the River of Yenisei. At the third stage, the Yeniseisky area was subjected to detail exploration. Geological analysis involved two stages (exploration and assessment) in accordance with the regulatory documents issued by the RF Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The results were discussed at the meeting of the Rosnedra State Committee on Natural Resources, and it was stated that, based on the set of parameters, the Yeniseisky area is suitable for RAW disposal in the depth interval 450-550 m in Nizhnekansky Massif. In 2012-2014 the Project Documentation stage exploration was completed (the fourth research stage) and the project of underground research laboratory at a depth of 500 m was developed. The long-Term environmental safety of ultimate disposal of long-lived radioactive waste was validated. The results proved that the project solutions on the ultimate disposal facility for long-lived RAW and the isolating properties of enclosing rock mass were more than sufficient to ensure safety of the facility in accordance with the RF regulatory documents. Nevertheless, the waste disposal permission can only be obtained after the full-scale research of the insulating properties of engineering barriers and rocks in the underground laboratory and after public approval of the project.
Kuznetsov A.G.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Boykov K.A.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2014
This article considers the problem of increasing of operation efficiency of existing Russian mining and metallurgical enterprises in the time of substantiation of prospective projects on the basis of analysis and forecast of cost price, according to the "direct-costing" system. Use of this methodological approach allows to carry out more objective and correct estimation of new technical, technological and organization-management strategic solutions in the conditions of operating enterprises. These solutions are directed on increasing of operation efficiency of these enterprises in conditions of changing parameters of their work. The most urgent task is division of exploitation costs into semi-fixed and related constituents for large mining-metallurgical enterprises (associations), including extraction, processing, provision and service departments with unified control center. Authors of this article carried out the research of this problem on example of basic Russian uranium-extraction enterprise - Priargunsky Mining and Chemical Works. There was made a proof that, using direct-costing system, calculation of forecast cost price of 1 t of extracted ore to 2020 at the Association allows to decrease the cost by 20-25%. At the same time, ignoring of this principle significantly increases the cost price, which leads to incorrect strategic conclusions. This system is recommended at all existing Russian mining and metallurgical enterprises with economical substantiation of prospective projects, directed on increasing of working efficiency of these enterprises.
Kasatkin V.V.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Kasatkin A.V.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Samorodova T.S.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2013
This article gives a brief information about the facilities of peaceful nuclear explosions, which had been performed in Russia since 1969 till 1988. These explosions are connected with the fuel and energy complex. According to the experimental data and forecast, the rocks and water of the central areas of nuclear explosions at every facility of peaceful nuclear explosions should be classified as radioactive wastes. Nowadays and in the nearest 70-100 years, radioactivity of these wastes should be determined by the fragmentation radionuclides: strontium-90, cesium-137 and tritium. These radionuclides are formed from the matrix inert radioactive gases. The available mechanisms of distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides beyond the central area of explosion are given, including the mechanisms of placing of these radionuclides on the earth's surface and in the area of active water exchange. Stratal water and hydrocarbons are the main carriers of the fragmentation anthropogenic radionuclides and tritium. The basic engineering-technical and organizational measures are given for the purpose of guaranteeing of radiation safety to the population (including the personnel of field) and protection of natural environment from the pollution by anthropogenic radionuclides. It is necessary to determine the owners of the facilities of peaceful nuclear explosions. In this case, these explosions should be considered as the placement of Specific radioactive wastes and financing sources of the required radiation safety activities.
Gupalo T.A.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Novikov E.A.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015
The article focuses on the topical problem concerned with disposal and isolation of radioactive waste (RAW), namely, the theoretical and experimental validation of suitability of geological formations to be a barrier for deep disposal of high-level waste. The authors display the complex and diversified nature of characteristics, events and processes that influence underground isolation facilities for RAW. Objectives and methods of the research to find values of the initial data for the prediction of safety of geological RAW disposal are identified. The article presents the substantiated design of a set of studies into properties and condition of rock mass intended for RAW disposal, the related procedures and instrumentation, and the problems to be solved to predict and ensure safety at all stages of lifecycle of geological RAW disposal and isolation facility. The research used the many-years experience of control over crystalline rock mass with analogous geological conditions, in the present authors' opinion, to the facility planned for RAW disposal in Nizhnekansky Granitoid Massif.
Rybalchenko A.I.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Kurochkin V.M.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC |
Vereshchagin P.M.,VNIPIpromtekhnologii JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015
The authors appreciate participation of A. V. Ponizov, Director of Zheleznogorsk Division, National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management in this study. Based on the 50-years experience gained in research, development and practice of liquid radioactive waste disposal in deep-level weakly permeable geological structures in special repositories created at Zheleznogorsk in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Seversk in the Tomsk Region and Dimitrovgrad in the Ulyanovsk Region, the technical and technological efficiency as well as ecological and social safety of this method are positively reasoned and proved. The reported data on in situ research and observation prove retention ability of clay-overlaid sandy - clayey reservoirs to prevent migration of radionuclides, including longlived. The mentioned geological formations (structures) act as natural barriers to hold radionuclides out of natural eco-system for further solidification (in reservoir rocks) in the form of "deposits" similar to hydrogenous uranium deposits. The data on the behavior and migration of radioactive waste in sandy-clayey rocks are of interest to assess post-effect of disposal of solid and solidified waste containing longlived nuclides in weakly permeable geological formations. The deep liquid radioactive waste disposal in the discussed geological structures is an unconditional alternative to hazardous radioactive waste discharge in surface water bodies or to accumulation of solidified radioactive waste in special surface repositories. It is recommended to continue the research with a view to improve underground radioactive waste disposal technology, including liquid waste, and to upgrade monitoring of deep liquid radioactive waste disposal in geological formations retaining migration of radionuclides.