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Soni A.,Institute of Pathology | Bansal A.,Institute of Pathology | Singh L.C.,Institute of Pathology | Mishra A.K.,Institute of Pathology | And 4 more authors.
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2011

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) plays a role in promoting genetic stability by repairing DNA replication errors, inhibiting recombination between nonidentical DNA sequences, and participating in responses to DNA damage. Although the role of MMR in prostate carcinogenesis remains unclear, MMR deficiency in Carcinoma Prostate (Pca) could prove to be clinically significant. Thus, the present study investigated the gene expression profile of six major MMR genes, viz. hMLH1, hMSH2, hPMS1, hPMS2, hMSH3, and hMSH6, and polymorphism in hMLH1 and hMSH2 in Pca in Indian population. Further, correlation with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated to establish their role as a potential prognostic marker. A significant downregulation of hMLH1, hMSH2, and hPMS2 expression was observed in Pca compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A greater loss of hPMS2 protein in poorly differentiated tumors was demonstrated, which was in concordance with a significant inverse correlation of hPMS2 gene expression with the Gleason score indicating its significance as a marker for Pca progression. An important association of hMLH1-93G>A polymorphism with the risk of Pca was also identified. The results of the present study suggest that an altered MMR has important biological and clinical significance in Pca in Indian population. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Bansal A.,National Institute of Pathology Indian Council of Medical Research | Bhatnagar A.,Safdarjung Hospital and VMMC | Saxena S.,National Institute of Pathology Indian Council of Medical Research
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2012

Ameloblastoma is a slow growing odontogenic epithelial tumor of jaw. It accounts for 1% of all tumors and cysts arising in maxilla and mandible. Although it is locally invasive and has a marked tendency to recur, metastasis is rare. Of the various histological patterns of ameloblastoma, the granular cell type is extremely rare accounting for 4% of ameloblastomas. We report a case of granular cell ameloblastoma with metastasis to the cervical lymph node presenting in a 40-year-old Indian female.

Gupta M.,Government Medical College | Kumar K.,Safdarjung Hospital and VMMC | Garg P.D.,Government Medical College
Asian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Introduction: The problem of triple diagnosis of HIV, substance abuse and psychiatric disorders is a complex one with difficult solutions. HIV disease progression is affected by substance use as well as psychiatric illness burden due to both direct as well as indirect factors. Continuing substance abuse with poor drug adherence coexists with psychiatric disorders leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Method: A total of 100 HIV positive subjects comprising of two groups each having 50 subjects with and without substance abuse were assessed using detailed history, mental state examination, WHO schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.0) and Beck's Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS). Statistical analysis used Chi-Square test, Fischer's exact test, Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, univariate and multiple regression analysis, univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. p-Value. <. 0.05 was considered to denote statistical significance. Results: Subjects with substance use disorder had higher rates of psychiatric morbidity (52% vs. 24%, 95% CI. = 0.5200, p<. 0.05). The rate of antiretroviral therapy default was almost double in subjects with substance abuse, as compared to subjects without substance use. Suicidal risk was significantly increased (p<. 0.05) in subjects with co-morbid medical disorders but substance abuse did not increase the risk. Conclusion: Substance abuse inflicts a much greater burden on HIV positive individuals as compared to subjects without substance use. Concomitant substance abuse resulted in significantly increased duration of illness and psychiatric morbidity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Bansal A.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Soni A.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Rao P.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Singh L.C.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

Background & objectives: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the fifth most common cancer among Indian men. Tumour protein p53 (TP53) gene increases the fidelity of DNA replication and homologous recombination by transcriptional transactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes. DNA repair thus has a potential role in molecular carcinogenesis of CaP. The aim of the present study was to identify mutations, and polymorphisms in TP53 gene and MMR protein expression in CaP in Indian male population. Methods: TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was analysed in 105 CaP, 120 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases and 106 normal controls. Mutational analysis of TP53 was done in DNA extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue of 80 CaP and 24 BPH cases. Expression of MMR proteins viz. hMLH1, hMSH2, hPMS1 and hPMS2 was studied in 80 CaP, 15 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and 15 BPH cases. Results: A somatic C/A variation at the intronic boundary of exon 7 in TP53 gene was observed in one each biopsy samples from CaP and BPH. A significant association of codon 72 TP53 Pro/Pro genotype was observed with the risk of CaP (OR, 2.59, P=0.02) and BPH (OR, 6.27, P<0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis of MMR proteins showed maximum loss of hPMS1 expression in cases of CaP and PIN while no loss in expression of MMR proteins was observed in BPH cases. The study also identified a significant loss of hPMS2 protein in poorly differentiated tumours (Gleason score >7) than in well differentiated tumours (Gleason score 3-6) (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism plays significant role in the pathogenesis and susceptibility to CaP and BPH. Also, an aberrant MMR protein expression could be involved in progression of prostate cancer through PIN, early CaP to aggressive CaP. The loss of hPMS2 protein expression may serve as a marker for progression of CaP.

Saurabh K.,Safdarjung Hospital and VMMC | Debata P.K.,Safdarjung Hospital and VMMC | Gupta R.,Safdarjung Hospital and VMMC
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Congenital Lobar Emphysema (CLE) is one of the rare cystic malformations of the lung. This malformation is generally confused with pneumothorax of the lung and most often, the placement of an intercostal drainage tube is entertained in an emergency situation, but the non-improvement of the distress and non-expansion of the lung are eye openers for a treating paediatrician. We are describing a case of a 26 days old baby who presented with respiratory distress in the Emergency Department. On the basis of the chest X-ray (CXR), we suspected it to be a case of pneumothorax and an intercostal drainage tube was inserted. But as he did not improve, CT of the chest was done and the baby was diagnosed to have congenital lobar emphysema. In spite of the advanced diagnostic techniques, the diagnosis of CLE may present a diagnostic challenge and a high index of suspicion is needed if the diagnosis has to be made promptly.

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