Penicuik, United Kingdom
Penicuik, United Kingdom

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Strugnell B.W.,VLA Thirsk | Dagleish M.P.,Moredun Research Institute | Bayne C.W.,Moredun Research Institute | Brown M.,British Trust for Ornithology BTO | And 4 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2011

The possible cause of disease and mortality in corvids on an outdoor pig unit in the north of England between August 2007 and March 2008 was investigated. Nine carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) and nine rooks (Corvus frugilegus), comprising five live-caught birds with clinical signs of respiratory disease, one livecaught bird without respiratory disease, and 12 birds submitted dead were examined. Clinical signs, gross and histopathological examination, microbiology and toxicology indicated that Pasteurella multocida infection was the cause of disease. Molecular and serotyping analyses showed that P. multocida isolates (obtained from live-caught birds with clinical respiratory disease) were all capsular type F with a mix of somatic serotypes 3, 4 and 7. Immunohistochemistry increased the diagnostic sensitivity of the analysis and detected P. multocida within the pulmonary lesions of all affected live-caught birds and 10 of 12 birds found dead. These findings suggest that wild corvids in the UK can suffer from lung pathology associated with P. multocida and, as potential vectors of P. multocida, may pose a risk to domestic poultry. © 2011 Houghton Trust Ltd.


Gill J.L.,University College London | James V.M.,University College London | James V.M.,Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology | Carta E.,University College London | And 5 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

Two newborn Belgian Blue calves from a farm in the United Kingdom exhibited lateral recumbency, low head carriage and transient muscle spasms following tactile or auditory stimulation. DNA sequence analysis indicated that both calves were homozygous for the recessive congenital muscular dystonia type 2 (CMD2) mutation (c.809T>C, p.Leu270Pro) in SLC6A5, encoding the neuronal glycine transporter GlyT2. Further testing of animals from the index farm and a sample of Belgian Blue sires revealed an unexpectedly high frequency of CMD2 carriers. This implies that linked quantitative trait loci may be influencing the prevalence of CMD2 in the estimated 55 000 Belgian Blue cattle in the United Kingdom. We have therefore developed new inexpensive tests for the CMD2 allele that can be used to confirm diagnosis, identify carriers and guide future breeding strategy, thus avoiding animal distress/premature death and minimizing the future economic impact of this disorder. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Chesebro B.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Race B.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Meade-White K.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | LaCasse R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals characterized by gray matter spongiosis and accumulation of aggregated, misfolded, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). PrPres can be deposited in brain in an amyloid-form and/or non-amyloid form, and is derived from host-encoded protease-sensitive PrP (PrPsen), a protein normally anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). Previously, using heterozygous transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP, we found that PrP anchoring to the cell membrane was required for typical clinical scrapie. However, in the present experiments, using homozygous transgenic mice expressing two-fold more anchorless PrP, scrapie infection induced a new fatal disease with unique clinical signs and altered neuropathology, compared to non-transgenic mice expressing only anchored PrP. Brain tissue of transgenic mice had high amounts of infectivity, and histopathology showed dense amyloid PrPres plaque deposits without gray matter spongiosis. In contrast, infected non-transgenic mice had diffuse non-amyloid PrPres deposits with significant gray matter spongiosis. Brain graft studies suggested that anchored PrPsen expression was required for gray matter spongiosis during prion infection. Furthermore, electron and light microscopic studies in infected transgenic mice demonstrated several pathogenic processes not seen in typical prion disease, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy and ultrastructural alterations in perivascular neuropil. These findings were similar to certain human familial prion diseases as well as to non-prion human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

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