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Kent Town, Australia

O'Reilly T.,Novartis | McSheehy P.M.J.,Novartis | Wartmann M.,Novartis | Lassota P.,Novartis | And 3 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Drugs

The aim was to determine the potential of the allosteric mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, to act in combination with cytotoxic anticancer compounds in vitro and in vivo. A concomitant combination in vitro showed no evidence of antagonism, but enhanced the antiproliferative effects (additive to synergistic) with cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and patupilone. Everolimus (1-5 mg/kg/d orally) was evaluated for antitumor activity in vivo alone or in combination with suboptimal cytotoxic doses using athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous human H-596 lung, KB-31 cervical, or HCT-116 colon tumor xenografts. Everolimus monotherapy was very well tolerated and caused inhibition of tumor growth, rather than regression, and this was associated with a dose-dependent decline in tumor pS6 levels, a key downstream protein of mammalian target of rapamycin. At the doses used, the cytotoxics inhibited tumor growth and caused tolerable body-weight loss. Concomitant combinations of cisplatin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, or patupilone with everolimus produced cooperative antitumor effects, in some cases producing regressions without clinically significant increases in toxicity. In contrast, combinations with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil were less well tolerated. Alternative administration schedules were tested for cisplatin, gemcitabine, or paclitaxel combined with everolimus: these did not dramatically affect cisplatin or gemcitabine activity or tolerability but were antagonistic for paclitaxel. Everolimus showed promising maintenance activity after treatment with doxorubicin or paclitaxel ceased. Overall, the results confirm that everolimus is an effective, well-tolerated suppressor of experimental human tumor growth, and although it did not show strong potentiation of efficacy, antitumor activity in vivo was increased without marked increases in toxicity, supporting clinical use of everolimus as a partner for conventional cytotoxics. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Holland S.J.,Rigel Inc | Pan A.,Rigel Inc | Franci C.,Rigel Inc | Hu Y.,Rigel Inc | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Research

Accumulating evidence suggests important roles for the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl in cancer progression, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and patient mortality, highlighting Axl as an attractive target for therapeutic development. We have generated and characterized a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor, R428, that blocks the catalytic and procancerous activities of Axl. R428 inhibits Axl with low nanomolar activity and blocked Axl-dependent events, including Akt phosphorylation, breast cancer cell invasion, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Pharmacologic investigations revealed favorable exposure after oral administration such that R428-treated tumors displayed a dose-dependent reduction in expression of the cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcriptional regulator Snail. In support of an earlier study, R428 inhibited angiogenesis in corneal micropocket and tumor models. R428 administration reduced metastatic burden and extended survival in MDAMB-231 intracardiac and 4T1 orthotopic (median survival, >80 days compared with 52 days; P < 0.05) mouse models of breast cancer metastasis. Additionally, R428 synergized with cisplatin to enhance suppression of liver micrometastasis. Our results show that Axl signaling regulates breast cancer metastasis at multiple levels in tumor cells and tumor stromal cells and that selective Axl blockade confers therapeutic value in prolonging survival of animals bearing metastatic tumors. ©2010 AACR. Source

Dredge K.,Progen Pharmaceuticals Limited | Hammond E.,Progen Pharmaceuticals Limited | Handley P.,Progen Pharmaceuticals Limited | Gonda T.J.,University of Queensland | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer

Background:PG545 is a heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic that inhibits tumour angiogenesis by sequestering angiogenic growth factors in the extracellular matrix (ECM), thus limiting subsequent binding to receptors. Importantly, PG545 also inhibits heparanase, the only endoglycosidase which cleaves HS chains in the ECM. The aim of the study was to assess PG545 in various solid tumour and metastasis models.Methods:The anti-angiogenic, anti-tumour and anti-metastatic properties of PG545 were assessed using in vivo angiogenesis, solid tumour and metastasis models. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data were also generated in tumour-bearing mice to gain an understanding of optimal dosing schedules and regimens.Results:PG545 was shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and induce anti-tumour or anti-metastatic effects in murine models of breast, prostate, liver, lung, colon, head and neck cancers and melanoma. Enhanced anti-tumour activity was also noted when used in combination with sorafenib in a liver cancer model. PK data revealed that the half-life of PG545 was relatively long, with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of radiolabeled PG545 observed in liver tumours.Conclusion:PG545 is a new anti-angiogenic clinical candidate for cancer therapy. The anti-metastatic property of PG545, likely due to the inhibition of heparanase, may prove to be a critical attribute as the compound enters phase I clinical trials. © 2011 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source

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