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Fong M.Y.,University of Louisville | Jin S.,University of Louisville | Rane M.,University of Louisville | Singh R.K.,Vivo Inc | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Application of doxorubicin (Dox) for the treatment of cancer is restricted due to its severe side effects. We used combination strategy by combining doxorubicin (Dox) with withaferin A (WFA) to minimize the ill effects of Dox. Treatment of various epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, A2780/CP70 and CaOV3) with combination of WFA and Dox (WFA/DOX) showed a time- and dose-dependent synergistic effect on inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death, thus reducing the dosage requirement of Dox. Combination treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of ROS production resulting in immense DNA damage, induction of autophagy analyzed by transmission electron microscope and increase in expression of autophagy marker LC3B, and culminated in cell death analyzed by cleaved caspase 3. We validated combination therapy on tumor growth using an in vitro 3Dimension (3D) tumor model and the more classic in vivo xenograft model of ovarian cancer. Both tumor models showed a 70 to 80% reduction in tumor growth compared to control or animals treated with WFA or Dox alone. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissues from animals treated with WFA/Dox combination showed a significant reduction in cell proliferation and formation of microvessels accompanied by increased in LC3B level, cleaved caspase 3, and DNA damage. Taken together, our data suggest that combining WFA with Dox decreases the dosage requirement of Dox, therefore, minimizing/eliminating the severe side effects associated with high doses of DOX, suggesting the application of this combination strategy for the treatment of ovarian and other cancers with no or minimum side effects. © 2012 Fong et al. Source

Vivo Inc | Date: 2016-02-22

Cold packs for cooling the body and not for medical purposes.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 171.65K | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Over 30,000 Americans die each year from prostate cancer, making it the second most lethal form of cancer affecting men in the U.S. Many of these deaths could be prevented if the cancers were detected before the tumor escaped the prostate. Our goal for this research project is to develop a simple blood test that will dramatically improve a physician's ability to judge whether an abnormal PSA level is due to a metastatic prostate tumor or to a benign prostatic condition. The availability of this assay will eliminate thousands of unnecessary prostate biopsies with their inherent pain, undesirable side effects, and cost. In addition, the Vivo assay should make it possible to detect a large portion of the 15-20% of existing prostate tumors that are missed by the PSA test. Vivo's research plan is designed to identify tumor-associated autoantibodies which may be present at low levels in normal serum but increase during the early stages of prostate cancer. Our approach is particularly novel in that it focuses on autoantibodies of the IgM and IgA isotypes which are generally ignored in traditional epitope discovery strategies. Our approach also bypasses the common practice of pre-subtracting the phage library against Igs from normal sera; while the subtractive step may speed up the overall biopanning process, it also interferes with the discovery of potentially important diagnostic antibodies which are already present at low levels in normal sera but are elevated as the cancer progresses. We propose to achieve two specific aims: 1. To identify a group of peptides that are recognized by either IgM or IgA autoantibodies in sera from patients with aggressive prostate cancer; and 2. To compare the reactivities of these peptides with individual patient sera (aggressive and indolent cancers; BPH) and with healthy controls. To achieve these goals, we will prepare several thousand individually-amplified peptide phage clones and will use high throughput techniques to measure their reactivities with multiple serum samples. The new assay will provide significant improvements in the specificity and sensitivity of prostate cancer diagnostics, and this should lead to wider acceptance of screening programs for the early detection of prostate cancer and to significant declines in the prostate cancer death rate. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The goal of this research project is to develop a new blood test for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer which will make the current PSA test more sensitive and more reliable. This will encourage more physicians to support annual screening of their patients at risk for this cancer and will thus lead to decreases in the death rate due to this disease.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 219.81K | Year: 2015

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Systems and methods estimate expected loss risk to computers and enterprises based on the data files present on computers and data file clusters within the enterprise.

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