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Maheswaran T.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Abikshyeet P.,Kalinga Institute of Dental science | Sitra G.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Gokulanathan S.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2014

Tastes in humans provide a vital tool for screening soluble chemicals for food evaluation, selection, and avoidance of potentially toxic substances. Taste or gustatory dysfunctions are implicated in loss of appetite, unintended weight loss, malnutrition, and reduced quality of life. Dental practitioners are often the first clinicians to be presented with complaints about taste dysfunction. This brief review provides a summary of the common causes of taste disorders, problems associated with assessing taste function in a clinical setting and management options available to the dental practitioner.

Jeelani S.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Jagat Reddy R.C.,Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute | Maheswaran T.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Asokan G.S.,Tagore Dental College and Hospital | Anand B.,Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2014

Emerging as a targeted, safe, and efficient pharmacotherapy is the approach of theranostics, which focuses on patient-centered care. It is a combination of diagnosis and therapeutics. It provides a transition from conventional medicine to personalized medicine. It deals with the custom made treatment plan based on uniqueness of every individual thus resulting in right drug for the right patient at the right time. Genetics plays a significant role in theranostics. Theranostics provides a cost-effective specific successful treatment protocol. Pharmacogenetics, proteomics and biomarker profiling forms the backbone of theranostics. The role of theranostics is interestingly appreciated at multi levels with special consideration in oncology wherein nano formulations in the form of liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes play a very important role. Thus, theranostics is a holistic transition from trial and error medicine to predictive, preventive and personalized medicine leading to improved quality care of pharmacotherapy.

PubMed | Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Madha Dental College and Hospital, Sree Mookambika Institute of Dental Science and Annamalai University
Type: Review | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2016

Early detection of cancer greatly decreases the morbidity and mortality rates and thereby increases the 5-year survival rates. In developing countries like India where the disease is highly prevalent focus is mainly on decreasing the mortality rates which can be easily achieved by detection at an asymptomatic stage. Visual examination has been the standard screening method for screening oral cancer through several decades, and it is well known that conventional visual examination is limited to subjective interpretation and cannot be easily achieved in certain anatomical sites. As a solution to all these adjunctive techniques have emerged, and it has been widely used. An effort is made through this paper to review the most commonly used adjunctive aids for the detection of premalignancy and cancer.

PubMed | Yenepoya Dental College, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women and VMSDC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2016

In multiple-appointment root canal treatment, a temporary filling material is used to seal the access cavity between visits. The primary function of this material is to prevent the contamination of the root canal system by fluids, organic debris, and bacteria from the oral cavity.A total of fifty extracted noncarious unrestored human maxillaryanterior teeth with intact crowns and roots were selected The canals were instrumented using stepback technique and sodium hypochlorite (3%) and hydrogen peroxide (3%) were used as irrigants for each specimen alternatively. The coronal two-thirds of each canal were flared using Gates-Glidden drills up to no. 3 size and obturated with Gutta-percha using zinc oxide-eugenol (ZnOE) as sealer. The teeth were then randomly selected and divided into six groups out of which four were experimental groups and two control groups. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 3 days. All sealing materials and Gutta-percha were gently removed from the walls of the canal, and the entire circumference of the canal wall examined for dye penetration.The lowest mean leakage was in the Fermit-N group followed by Cavit-W, ZnOE, intermediate restorative materials (IRM), and positive control.Fermit-N showed better sealing ability compared to cavit, ZnOE and IRM.

PubMed | Salem College, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Annamalai University and YRG Care
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2016

Although highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the quality of life among HIV-infected people in India, the emergence of drug resistance along with the limited access and affordability to routine monitoring continues to be a challenge worldwide.The frequency and patterns of HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations among the first-line failing HIV-infected patients attending a hospital in Salem, Tamil Nadu, India, were genotypically analyzed using the online Stanford HIV Database.Of the study patients followed up for 6 months, 23 patients failed first-line therapy and the mutation of I135R/T/V/X, L178 I/M, M184V/I, D67N, K70R, and K103N was most common. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of these patients belonged to HIV subtype C.The study documents the frequency of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations that are prevalent in the first-line failing HIV-infected patients of South Indian region and adds up to the data for developing future algorithms to study the drug-resistance mutations of HIV subtype C. Thus, the results of the study call for the need for rational approach for selecting and for frequent viral monitoring to be performed to detect failure, followed by genotyping.

PubMed | University of the West Indies, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Sree Anjaneya Institute of Dental science, K S R Institute of Dental Science and Research and Sree Moogambigai Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation.The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC.A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands.In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia.According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.

Yoithapprabhunath T.R.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Maheswaran T.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Dineshshankar J.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Anusushanth A.,Educare Institute of Dental science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2013

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant condition affecting the oral cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the oral mucosa eventually causing trismus. This condition is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with limited success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions.

PubMed | Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Sree Anjaneya Institute of Dental science, Ksr Institute Of Dental Science And Research and Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Ameloblastoma holds a unique position among benign tumours by its locally destructive and invasive nature. Recently improvised molecular techniques helped researchers to unravel the myth behind such biologic behaviour. Though interesting findings have been delivered, the rhythmic correlation regarding the exact mechanism still remains lacking. Neurotrophins and their receptor mediated pathways play a crucial role in survival, death and differentiation of many neuroectoderm derived cells. With this background, the study has been aimed to investigate the expression of p75-NTR (Neurotrophin Receptor) in follicular and plexiform ameloblastoma.To analyze the immunohistochemical expression pattern of p75-NTR in ameloblastoma and to compare the immunohistochemical expression pattern of p75-NTR among the histological types of ameloblastoma, follicular and plexiform patterns.Total 22 ameloblastomas (12 follicular, 10 plexiform) were immuno-stained with anti-human p75-NTR mouse IgG monoclonal antibody and the pattern of staining is statistically analyzed.Only 11 (10 follicular, 1 plexiform) out of 22 ameloblastomas showed immuno-reactivity to p75-NTR. In ameloblastoma, only the peripheral pre-ameloblast like tall columnar cells showed reactivity whereas the stellate reticulum-like cells were immuno-negative. The staining pattern was membranous in the immuno-reactive cells. The results were studied with the downstream pathways from the literature and a possible mechanism has been proposed.The expression pattern of p75-NTR was found to be more in follicular ameloblastoma than plexiform.

Vinoth S.K.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Thomas A.V.,Ree Mookambika Institute of Dental science | Nethravathy R.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2013

Introduction: Myofunctional appliances are commonly used for correction of skeletal Class II malrelationship. These appliances influence craniofacial and nasopharyngeal dimensions. Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate changes in airway with twin block therapy. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric assessment of airway was done in 25 growing children in the age group of 11-13 years with Class II skeletal pattern. All the patients were treated with twin block appliance. Pre and post treatment lateral cephalograms were taken to evaluate the changes in different airway and craniofacial dimensions during the treatment period. The average treatment duration was 14.5 months. Results: Airway: A significant increase was observed in upper and lower pharyngeal width and area of bony nasopharynx. Craniofacial dimension: There was a significant increase in effective mandibular length, ramal length and mandibular plane angle. There was an increase in SNB angle, which resulted in decreased ANB angle. Conclusion: There was a definite improvement in airway dimension following twin block therapy.

PubMed | Vivekanandha Dental College for Women and VMSDC
Type: Review | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2016

Mutual trust and relationship between doctors and patients is an important factor of treatment plan. Changing trends in medical field does affect this relationship. This article reviews the basic code of conduct for every medical practitioner.

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