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Mohapatra R.K.,Vivekananda Institute of Technology
Proceedings of the 12th International Ferroalloys Congress: Sustainable Future | Year: 2010

Contribution is the difference between the net sales realization and cost of production. Cost of production in a Ferro alloys manufacturing depends upon the raw materials used, power consumption, and other variable expenses. In Ferro alloys production ore is the major rawmaterial which is available in different grades. Metallic contents are different at different faces, at different depths and at different locations of the mines. Contribution is a function of Sales Realization and Cost of Production. Cost of Production is function of Rawmaterial consumption, Power consumption, Rawmaterial procurement price, power tariff, and other variable expenses. Cost of material can be reduced by 1. Using the right rawmaterial, in right quantities. 2. Obtaining the right blend of ore from the mines based on the quantity of ore required or to be supplied; cost of ore, and the customer satisfaction. Optimizing the Rawmaterial mix has a major share in maximizing the contribution as the slag volume increases with higher gang material in the charge. Use of low-grade ore, ore with higher percentage of alumina along with flux, may increase the slag volume. Since the cost of low-grade ore is less, compared to that of high-grade ore, the rawmaterial cost may decrease with increase in slag volume. As the total charge volume increases it requires more power for smelting and results in increasing in cost of power. The material mix should be selected in such a manner so as to maintain slag volume at an optimum level where the total cost will be minimum and with optimal customer mix the contribution can be maximized.

Dinesh P.A.,M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology | Nalinakshi N.,Atria Institute of Technology | Chandrashekhar D.V.,Vivekananda Institute of Technology
Fluid Dynamics and Materials Processing | Year: 2014

Heat and Mass transfer from a vertical heated plate embedded in a sparsely packed porous medium with internal heat generation and variable fluid properties like permeability, porosity and thermal conductivity has been investigated numerically. In particular, the governing highly non-linear coupled partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations and solved numerically by using a shooting algorithm based on a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme and a Newton Raphson method (to obtain velocity, temperature and concentration distributions). The heat and mass transfer characteristics are analyzed and related physical aspects are discussed in detail to interpret the effect of the various significant problem parameters. The results show that the buoyancy ratio number, Prandtl number Pr, Schmidt number Sc and other parameters play an important role. The obtained results are compared with previously published works and they are found to be in very good agreement. The effects of the considered parameters on the local skin friction coefficient (viscous drag), Nusselt number (rate of heat transfer) and Sherwood number (rate of mass transfer) are also discussed. © 2014 Tech Science Press.

Rohini T.,Vivekananda Institute of Technology
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

With today's increasing trend of cloud computing world, most of the organizations prefer to outsource and share their data by the means of cloud service providers. Cloud computing plays a major role by providing different resources in the form of web services which is based on pay-as-per-usage model. Along with benefits of reduced cost, dynamic resource availability, consumption based cost it also brings new challenges for data security and access control when users outsource sensitive data for sharing on cloud servers. This paper takes a glance on the different cloud computing model based on their access and deployment of clouds, also it provides two cryptographic approaches for the data security. The first approach is software based data security model and another is hardware based data security model. In software based model the cryptographic approach is used to build the software for the security of data. In hardware based model it is embedded in the hardware itself, thus providing more robustness. Thought hardware based model provides more robustness; the software based model provides more flexibility for the data correction and data recovery. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Dash S.K.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT | Karunamoy T.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT | Dalai B.,Eastern Academy of Science and Technology | Swain B.B.,Vivekananda Institute of Technology
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

The mechanism of dipolar complexation involving TBP and three alcohols namely 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol and 1-octanol in an apolar medium benzene is investigated by three direct methods using dielectric measurement data at frequency 455 kHz and at temperature 303.16 K. The parameters evaluated in these systems are the interaction dipole moment, induced polarization and apparent complex formation constant for thermodynamically most favoured stoichiometry of 1:1 complexes. Two conclusions resulted from the study. Firstly, the complexation is predominantly due to polarization effect involving charge redistribution and secondly, the complex formation is most favoured in 1-hexanol system. © 2012 Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.

Sirohi R.,Vivekananda Institute of Technology | Kim D.H.,Kunsan National University | Yu S.-C.,Kunsan National University | Lee S.H.,Kunsan National University
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2012

Two mono anchoring dye molecules were bridged together to give a new di-anchoring bis-merocyanine dye which possessed a non-planar conformation on a TiO2 surface, a feature that impedes intermolecular aggregation of the dye in the adsorbed state. This dye also showed enhanced molar absorptivity and increased adsorption on TiO2. A dye sensitized solar cell based on the bis-merocyanine dye yielded enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.1%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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