ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture

Almora, India

ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture

Almora, India

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Sood S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Patro T.S.S.K.,Agricultural Research Station | Karad S.,Zonal Agricultural Research Station
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2016

The present study aimed at deciphering the stability and patterns of genotype × environment interaction (GEI) in finger millet genotypes tested in All India Coordinated Trials using GGE biplot technique. The combined ANOVA for grain yield of five finger millet cultivars at four environments showed that environments (E), genotypes (G) and GEI were highly significant (P<0.01). GGE biplot grouped the four environments into two mega environments with GPU 67 and VR 990 as winning genotypes. VL 376 was found to be an ideal genotype in terms of high yield and stability followed by VR 990 as desirable genotype. © 2016, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.


Mishra K.K.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Pal R.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhatt J.C.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Total phenolics, condensed tannins, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, ferric reducing antioxidant power, radical scavenging activity (RSA) on DPPH&ABTS and metal chelating activity of methanolic and aqueous extract from cap and stipe of Lentinula edodes have been evaluated. Different extracts contained 2.40-5.60 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenolics, 1.23-3.26 mg catechins equivalent of condensed tannins, and 2.31-11.96 mg ascorbic acid per gram of extract. Aqueous extract from cap contained higher phenolics, condensed tannins, ascorbic acid, RSA on DPPH and ABTS, reducing power, and metal chelating activity. We found that this mushroom species present antioxidant potential especially higher for cap indicating that the cap is the material that most contributes to the antioxidant activity.


Sharma A.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Sood S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Agrawal P.K.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Kant L.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

The investigation was carried out to determine the chemical components from methanolic extract of finger millet and barnyard millet genotypes using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract led to identification of more than 13 compounds in both the crops together. The major compounds in both millets were found to be (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (26.80 %), (E)-9-octadecenoic acid (17.37 %), caprolactam (6.69 %) and tetradecanoic acid (6.41 %). Moreover, the barnyard millet genotype VL 232 also showed γ-sitosterol, stigmasterols and campesterols in small percentage (1.49, 0.46 and 0.56 %). Oleic acid (2.47 %) was also present in small amount in finger millet. The detection of these compounds in both small millets highlights the importance of these under-utilized crops in terms of their nutritive value. The results inferred that both finger and barnyard millet extract contain variable patterns of bioactive compounds and could be used as natural antioxidant source for medicinal purposes.


Bahadur I.,Banaras Hindu University | Maurya B.R.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena V.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena V.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2016

The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the mineral release abilities of ten rhizobacterial strains isolated from rhizosphere of various crops growing in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India. Their abilities to solubilize inorganic phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) minerals from insoluble tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and waste muscovite (WM) revealed that rhizobacteria significantly solubilized different levels of inorganic P and fixed K, respectively. Some of the rhizobacterial stains have the ability to produce ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The identification based on the 16S rDNA gene sequencing of selected mineral-solubilizing rhizobacteria (MSR) having greater potential to serve as bioagents were identified as Bacillus subtilis (BRHU01, BRHU03, and BHU20), Bacillus tequilensis (BRHU02), Bacillus licheniformis (BRHU04), Bacillus pumilus (BRHU05), Bacillus flexus (BHU02), Brevibacillus formosus (BHU16), Bacillus methylotrophicus (BHU29), and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BHU30). Interestingly, inorganic P and K solubilization by these strains belonging to genera Bacillus and Brevibacillus showed significant variations from 0.52 to 14.49 and from 1.62 to 8.60 µg mL−1, respectively. However, generally, pH values of culture media decreased from near neutral (6.43) to acidic (3.83) with increasing incubation period, and this was inversely correlated with quantities of K solubilized by these rhizobacterial strains. Meanwhile, the electrical conductivity (EC) of broth culture increased from 0.09 to 0.23 dS m−1 with increasing incubation period. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the MSR revealed three clusters, which exhibited high variance with respect to nutrient release. Taken together, these results suggest that Bacillus and Brevibacillus sp. identified in this study solubilized varying levels of inorganic P and fixed K from insoluble TCP and WM by acidolysis mechanisms. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Mishra K.K.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Pal R.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Mishra P.K.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhatt J.C.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

The aim of the present investigation was to determine the antioxidant activities and mineral composition of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sajor-caju) as influences by different drying methods. Different dried oyster mushroom samples had 27.3-31.4 mg GAE/g dry wt. of phenolics, 2.19-53.74 % of radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 16.36-94.88 % of radical scavenging activity on 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 61.77-265.08 μM FeSO4 equivalent of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 144.03-372.05 μM Trolox equivalent of total antioxidant activity, 0.07-0.30 of reducing power and 23.13-78.12 % of metal chelating activity. Higher amount of nitrogen (4.84 %), potassium (5.07 %), zinc (0.093 mg/g), copper (0.010 mg/g), iron (0.168 mg/g) and manganese content (0.035 mg/g) was found in solar dried oyster mushroom samples. Principal component analysis revealed that radical scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS are having positive correlation with solar dried P. sajor-caju. We found that solar dried oyster mushrooms are rich in different antioxidant activities and minerals composition. © 2016, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.


Pal R.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhartiya A.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | ArunKumar R.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Kant L.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and minerals content of horse gram seed after dehulling and germination of 12 advance lines were investigated. Dehulled samples had a higher protein content compared with the raw and germinated. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after dehulling (29.31 %) and germination (98.73 %) whereas, the total lipids increased (10.98 %) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after dehulling and decreased (36.41 %) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after germination. Dehulling and germination significantly decreased the amount of phytic acid (PA), tannin (TN) and oxalic acid (OA). Trypsin inhibitor units decreased (26.79 %) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after germination. The minerals (Ca, Fe and Cu) composition of the germinated horsegram flour samples was significantly higher than the raw and dehulled flour. The functional properties of flours were studied and found that the bulk density (11.85 %) and oil absorption capacity (18.92 %) significantly increased after germination. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. principal component analysis revealed that in case of dehulled samples; TN, polyphenols, DPPH and ABTS radical inhibition, TSS, total antioxidant, OA, protein, FRAP value, Ca and Zn had positive correlation among themselves while in case of germinated samples, protein, oil absorption capacity, FRAP value, OA, total flavonoids, DPPH radical inhibition, Ca and Cu had positive correlation among themselves. Present study suggest that germination combined with dehulling process improved quality of horsegram by enhancing the nutritive value and reducing the antinutrients. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Pal R.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhartiya A.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Yadav P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Kant L.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of lentil flour after dehulling, germination and cooking of seeds were investigated. Dehulling showed no significant effect on protein content, however, protein content decreased in most of the varieties after germination and cooking. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly after dehulling (2.0–41.64 %) and cooking (2.08–31.07 %) whereas, germination had no significant effect on TSS content. Total lipids increased significantly after dehulling (21.56–42.86 %) whereas, it decreased significantly after germination (2.97–26.52 %) and cooking (23.05–58.63 %). Cooking was more effective than other methods in reducing trypsin inhibitors (80.51–85.41 %). Dehulling was most effective in reducing tannins (89.46–92.99 %) and phytic acid (52.63–60.00 %) content over raw seed. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid content decreased while linolenic acid content increased after dehulling. Dehulling, germination and cooking decreased the content of antioxidant metabolite (gallic acid, catechin and quercetin) and also antioxidant activities. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. Present study showed germination and cooking would be useful in formulation and development of lentil based functional foods for human health benefits. © 2016 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


Ghosh B.N.,ICAR Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Meena V.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Alam N.M.,ICAR Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Dogra P.,ICAR Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

The carbon management index (CMI) and labile organic carbon (LOC) pools are postulated as very sensitive indicators of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to land degradation within a short time in response to management practices. To test this hypothesis, we investigated LOC and CMI under a field experiment (2007-2013) in relation to runoff, soil loss, maize and wheat yields on a 2% (1.15°) land slope of the Indian Himalayas. In this study, the impacts of several resource conservation practices, including different combinations of vegetative barriers (VB), minimum tillage (MT), different organic amendments (OA) and weed mulch, were evaluated. Results revealed that the plots under MT + OA with three applications of weed mulch had more SOC, macroaggregate-associated C concentrations and macroaggregates than conventional tillage (CT) + NPK with chemical weed control. Carbon management index varied from 47 to 59 and 42 to 55% with different conservation practices at depths of 0-5 and 5-15. cm depths, respectively. Incorporation of weed mulch along with application of OM, MT and VB (by Palmarosa) under MT improved CMI by 19.7 and 24.2% compared to CT plots with VB (by Panicum) and inorganic NPK at depths of 0-5 and 5-15. cm, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between CMI and maize yield (r= 0.948; n= 24; P<. 0.01), CMI and wheat yield (r= 0.872; n= 24; P< 0.01) and CMI and wheat equivalent yield (r= 0.906; n= 24; P< 0.01). However, significant negative correlations were obtained for CMI and runoff (r= -0.701; n= 20; P< 0.01) and CMI and soil loss (r= -0.768; n= 20; P< 0.01). Results established that Palmarosa as VB along with OA plus weed-mulch under MT was the best management practice for decreasing runoff and soil loss and increasing system productivity on a 2% slope in the region. The single value CMI was strongly positively correlated with crop productivity and negatively correlated with soil loss. Hence, this single value CMI could potentially be used for assessment of soil degradation elsewhere. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and minerals content of horse gram seed after dehulling and germination of 12 advance lines were investigated. Dehulled samples had a higher protein content compared with the raw and germinated. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly (p0.05) after dehulling (29.31%) and germination (98.73%) whereas, the total lipids increased (10.98%) significantly (p0.05) after dehulling and decreased (36.41%) significantly (p0.05) after germination. Dehulling and germination significantly decreased the amount of phytic acid (PA), tannin (TN) and oxalic acid (OA). Trypsin inhibitor units decreased (26.79%) significantly (p0.05) after germination. The minerals (Ca, Fe and Cu) composition of the germinated horsegram flour samples was significantly higher than the raw and dehulled flour. The functional properties of flours were studied and found that the bulk density (11.85%) and oil absorption capacity (18.92%) significantly increased after germination. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. principal component analysis revealed that in case of dehulled samples; TN, polyphenols, DPPH and ABTS radical inhibition, TSS, total antioxidant, OA, protein, FRAP value, Ca and Zn had positive correlation among themselves while in case of germinated samples, protein, oil absorption capacity, FRAP value, OA, total flavonoids, DPPH radical inhibition, Ca and Cu had positive correlation among themselves. Present study suggest that germination combined with dehulling process improved quality of horsegram by enhancing the nutritive value and reducing the antinutrients.


Saha M.,Banaras Hindu University | Maurya B.R.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena V.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena V.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology | Year: 2016

The present investigation comprises a total of fifty potassium solubilizing bacterial (KSB) strains which were isolated from Oryza sativa, Musa paradisiaca, Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum L. These strains were evaluated for their ability to solubilize the fixed K from waste biotite (WB). On the basis of K-solublization, the seven most efficient KSB strains were evaluated for K-solublizing dynamics from the WB at 7, 14 and 21 DAI (days after incubation) on MAMs (Modified Solid Aleksandrov Medium). Further, these screened seven KSB strains were used for their morphological, physiological and molecular chacterization. The KSB strains Bacillus licheniformis BHU18 and Pseudomonas azotoformans BHU21 showed significantly higher K-solublization 7.22 and 6.03 μg mL-1 at 30 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. A significantely higher zone of solubilization significantly higher was recorded with Pseudomonas azotoformans BHU21 (3.61 cm). Bacillus licheniformis BHU18 produced significantly higher (~23 μg mL-1) concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid. The diversity of KSB as bioinoculants to release potassium provides a win-win situation. Therefore, it is crucial to adopt efficient KSB strain interventions for the judicious use of chemical and biological resources for maximizing food production while reducing pollution and rejuvenating degraded land for agricultural benefit. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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