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Preetha G.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Manoharan T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Stanley J.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Kuttalam S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2010

Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of the chloronicotinyl insecticide, imidacloprid on parasitoids. The studies took place at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore from 2006-2007. Imidacloprid was tested against three beneficial insects viz., an egg parasitoid, egg larval parasitoid and a larval parasitoid representing two families of Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae (Trichogramma chilonis Ishii) and Braconidae (Chelonus blackburni Cameron; Bracon hebetor Say) that attack insect pests of cotton. The toxicity of imidacloprid was evaluated by treating the parasitized eggs using an atomizer in the case of T. chilonis and glass scintillation vial residue bioassay method for the adults of C. blackburni and B. hebetor. The toxicity of imidacloprid to parasitoids was compared with another neonicotinoid, named thiamethoxam, and a standard check, methyl demeton. Imidacloprid 17.8 SL did not cause any adverse effects on the adult emergence and parasitization of T. chilonis. At the recommended dose of imidacloprid [25 g active substance (a.s.)/ha], 90.67 and 85.32 per cent adult emergence and parasitization was recorded, respectively. The recommended dose of imidacloprid caused 56 per cent mortality and was found to have moderate impact on the adults of C. blackburni. On the other hand, it was found to be toxic to the parasitoid B. hebetor, causing 70 per cent mortality at 48 hours after treatment (HAT). The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of selected insecticides with natural enemies attacking pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.


Bhattacharyya R.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhattacharyya R.,University of Wolverhampton | Pandey S.C.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Chandra S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | And 5 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2010

To date, the sustainability of wheat (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) cropping systems has not been well assessed, especially under Indian Himalayas. Research was conducted in 1995-1996 to 2004 at Hawalbagh, India to study the effects of fertilization on yield sustainability of irrigated wheat-soybean system and on selected soil properties. The mean wheat yield under NPK + FYM (farmyard manure) treated plots was ~27% higher than NPK (2.4 Mg ha-1). The residual effect of NPK + FYM caused ~14% increase in soybean yield over NPK (2.18 Mg ha-1). Sustainable yield index values of wheat and the wheat-soybean system were greater with annual fertilizer N or NPK plots 10 Mg ha-1 FYM than NPK alone. However, benefit:cost ratio of fertilization, agronomic efficiency and partial factor productivity of applied nutrients were higher with NPK + FYM than NPK, if FYM nutrients were not considered. Soils under NPK + FYM contained higher soil organic C (SOC), total soil N, total P and Olsen-P by ~10, 42, 52 and 71%, respectively, in the 0-30 cm soil layers, compared with NPK. Non-exchangeable K decreased with time under all treatments except NPK. Total SOC in the 0-30 cm soil layer increased in all fertilized plots. Application of NPK + FYM also improved selected soil physical properties over NPK. The NPK + FYM application had better soil productivity than NPK but was not as economical as NPK if farmers had to purchase manure. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Bhattacharyya R.,University of Wolverhampton | Bhattacharyya R.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Smets T.,Catholic University of Leuven | Fullen M.A.,University of Wolverhampton | And 2 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2010

Despite geotextiles having potential for soil conservation, limited scientific data are available to assess the effects of geotextiles in reducing runoff and water erosion. Hence, the objective of this review is to analyse the effects of plot length (L) and other possible affecting factors [cover percentage (C, %), slope gradient (S), rainfall duration (D), rainfall intensity (I), sand, silt and clay contents, soil organic matter (SOM) content and geotextile type (natural or synthetic)] on the effectiveness of geotextiles in reducing soil and water loss, based on reported experimental data. From linear regressions, C (%) and soil sand, silt and clay contents are found to be the most important variables in reducing SLR (ratio of soil loss in bare plots to that in geotextile treated plots) for splash, C (%) for interrill and D (min) for rill and interrill erosion processes, respectively. Soil clay and silt contents and D are key variables in decreasing RR (ratio of runoff from bare plots to that from geotextile treated plots) for interrill, and clay content for rill and interrill erosion processes, respectively. The linear relationship between mean b-value (geotextile effectiveness factor in reducing soil loss) and L of all studies was not significant (P>0.05). The same is true for the relationship between L and SLR, and L and RR. However, when L is added to an equation as an interaction term with C (%), geotextile cover is significantly (P<0.05) more effective in reducing SLR on shorter plots than longer ones for both interrill and rill and interrill erosion processes. Buffer strip plots (area coverage ~10%) with Borassus and Buriti mats have the highest b-values. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Bhattacharyya R.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhattacharyya R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Tuti M.D.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Tuti M.D.,Indian Institute of Science | And 2 more authors.
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2012

Soil conservation and C sequestration are critical issues in rainfed farming of the Indian Himalayas. This study, conducted from 2003 through 2009 on a sandy clay loam soil (Typic Haplaquept) near Almora, India, evaluated the effect of seasonal tillage alterations (year-round conventional tillage [CT- CT], year-round no tillage [NT-NT], CT in the Rabi [winter] season and NT in the Kharif [summer/rainy] season (CT-NT) and the reverse [NT-CT] of the latter treatment) on soil organic carbon (SOC) retention, soil aggregation, aggregate-associated C concentrations and particulate organic matter-carbon (POM-C) in the 0- to 15-cm soil layer. Results indicate that the plots under NT-NT, NT-CT, and CT-NT had nearly 16, 12, and 10% higher total SOC content compared with CT-CT (∼12 g kg -1 soil) in the 0-to 5-cm soil layer. However, tillage had no impact on total SOC content in the subsurface (5- to 15-cm) soil layer. Although the labile pools of SOC were positively affected by conservation tillage practices (CT-NT, NT-NT, and NT-CT), the less labile pool was only infl uenced by the continuous NT and NT-CT in the 0- to 5-cm depth. Plots under NT-NT and NT-CT had about 27 and 19% higher labile SOC pool than CT-CT plots (5.65 g C kg -1 soil), and NT-NT and NT-CT plots had about 14 and 11% higher less labile SOC pool than CT-CT plots (2.61 g C kg -1 soil) in that soil layer. Plots under NT-NT and one seasonal tillage (NT-CT and CT-NT) also had higher macroaggregates and macroaggregate-associated SOC after 6 yr of study than CT-CT plots. Greater proportion of microaggregates within macroaggregates in the plots under NT-NT compared with CT-CT was also observed in the surface layer only. The NT-CT plots had similar effects on all studied soil properties to CT- NT plots, apart from the mean weight diameter (MWD) and labile SOC pool in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer were higher under former plots than the latter. Plots under NT-NT had about 10% higher coarse (250-2000 μm) intra-aggregate particulate organic matter-C (iPOM-C) within >2000 μm sand free aggregates in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer compared with CT-CT plots. The fi ne (53-250 μm) iPOM-C within the 250- to 2000-μm aggregates was also higher in the continuous NT plots compared with CT within both >2000 and 250 to 2000 μm sand free aggregate size classes in that soil layer. Thus, the adoption of continuous NT is the best management option for improvement of soil C under a rainfed lentil [Lens esculentus (L.)]-fi nger millet [Eleusine coracona (L.) Gaertn.] cropping system of the Indian Himalayas, as the management practice has the potential to improve productivity and soil aggregation with greater accumulation of POM-C, and SOC stabilization apart from other known benefi ts like weed control, less cultivation cost, and higher profi ts. © Soil Science Society of America.


Bhattacharyya R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Tuti M.D.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bisht J.K.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhatt J.C.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Gupta H.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Soil Science | Year: 2012

Soil conservation and carbon sequestration are critical issues in the Indian Himalayas. This study, conducted from 2005 through 2009 on a sandy clay loam soil near Almora, India, with two tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and zero tillage [ZT]) and five fertilization management practices (100% NPK [F1], 50% NPK + 10 Mg farmyard manure [FYM] ha [F2], 50% NPK + 10 Mg poultry manure [PM] ha applied on equivalent N basis of 10 Mg FYM ha [F3], 100% NPK + 10 Mg FYM ha [F4], and 100% NPK + 10 Mg PM ha applied on equivalent N basis of 10 Mg FYM ha [F5]). The effects of these practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and its physical and chemical pools, soil aggregation, and aggregate-associated C contents in the 0- to 15-cm soil layer were evaluated. The plots under ZT had nearly 11% and 12% higher total SOC and particulate organic matter-C (POM-C) concentrations, respectively, compared with CT (∼12 and 4 g kg soil, in that order) plots in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer. Plots under F4 and F5 had significantly higher total SOC and POM-C contents than F2- and F3-treated plots in both soil layers. Although the labile pools of SOC were positively affected by ZT and fertilization, the recalcitrant pool was not. Plots under ZT had higher macroaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD), and macroaggregate- associated SOC compared with CT in the surface soil layer only. Similarly, F4- or F5-treated plots had higher macroaggregates, MWD, and macroaggregate- associated SOC compared with F1-, F2-, or F3-treated plots in that layer. All C pools had significant positive relationship with the MWD (in millimeters) in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer (n = 40), except for the nonlabile pool. However, only very labile (Pool I) and labile (Pool II) C pools had significant relationships with the proportion of macroaggregates in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer. Thus, adoption of year-round ZT along with 100% NPK in rice and 100% NPK + FYM/PM addition in wheat is the best management option under an irrigated rice-wheat system in the Indian Himalayas, as the management practice has the potential to maintain productivity and improve soil aggregation with greater accumulation of POM-C and SOC stabilization. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Saha S.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Hedau N.K.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Mahajan V.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Singh G.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Screening of natural biodiversity for their better quality attributes is of prime importance for quality breeding programmes. A set of 53 tomato genotypes was measured for their textural [skin firmness, pericarp thickness, total soluble solids (TSS)], nutritional [phosphorus (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and titrable acidity (TA)] and functional (β-carotene, lycopene and ascorbic acid) quality attributes. RESULT: Three sets of data (textural, nutritional and functional attributes) were obtained and analysed for their mutual relationships. Wide variations were observed in most of the measurements, e.g. skin firmness (coefficient of variability (CV) 269-612 g), pericarp thickness (CV 1.4-4.9 mm), potassium (CV 229-371 mg 100 g−1), iron (CV 611-1772 mg 100 g−1), ascorbic acid(CV12-86g100−1),suggesting that there are considerable levels of genetic diversity Significant correlations(P < 0.05, 0.01) were also detected among different attributes of tomato genotypes, such as phosphorus and zinc with a correlation coefficient of 0.74, ascorbic acid and copper of 0.57, pericarp thickness and lycopene of −0.52. However, there were no correlations between textural and nutritional attributes. Five factors were computed by principal component analysis that explained 66% of the variation in the attributes, among which all micronutrients other than iron, TSS, firmness and β-carotene were most important. Functional attributes except β-carotene played a less important role in explaining total variation. CONCLUSION: This knowledge could aid in the efficient conservation of important parts of theagricultural biodiversity of India. These results are also potentially useful for tomato breeders working on the development of new varieties. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.


Gopinath K.A.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Saha S.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Mina B.L.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

A transition period of at least 2 years is required for annual crops before the produce may be certified as organically grown. There is a need to better understand the various management options for a smooth transition from conventional to organic production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different organic amendments and biofertilizers (BFs) on productivity and profitability of a bell pepper-french bean-garden pea system as well as soil fertility and enzymatic activities during conversion to organic production. For this, the following six treatments were established in fixed plots: composted farmyard manure (FYMC, T 1); vermicompost (VC, T 2); poultry manure (PM, T 3) along with biofertilizers (BF) [Rhizobium/Azotobacter + phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (Pseudomonas striata)]; mix of three amendments (FYMC + PM + VC + BF, T 4); integrated nutrient management (FYMC + NPK, T 5); and unamended control (T 6). The yields of bell pepper and french bean under organic nutrient management were markedly lower (25.2-45.9% and 29.5-46.2%, respectively) than with the integrated nutrient management (INM). Among the organic treatments, T 4 and T 1 produced greater yields of both bell pepper (27.96 Mg ha -1) and french bean (3.87 Mg ha -1) compared with other treatments. In garden pea, however, T 4 gave the greatest pod yield (7.27 Mg ha -1) and was significantly superior to other treatments except T 5 and T 1. The latter treatment resulted in the lowest soil bulk density (1.19 Mg m -3) compared with other treatments. Similarly, soil organic C was significantly greater in all the treatments (1.21-1.30%) except T 2 compared to T 6 (1.06%). Plots under INM, however, had greater levels of available nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) than those under organic amendments. T 1 plots showed greater dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities compared with other treatments. However, T 4 and T 5 plots had greater activities of β-glucosidase and urease activities, respectively. The cost of cultivation was greater under organic nutrient management (except T 2) compared with INM. The latter treatment gave greater gross margin and benefit/cost (B/C) ratio for all vegetables, except that T 2 gave greater B/C ratio in garden pea compared with other treatments. We conclude that T 1 and T 4 were more suitable for enhancing the productivity of bell pepper-french bean-garden pea system, through improved soil properties, during transition to organic production. © Taylor & Francis Group.


Singh K.P.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Mishra H.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Saha S.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

The geometric mean diameter, sphericity, grain surface area, 1000 grain mass, true density (toluene displacement method), terminal velocity, dynamic angle of repose, coefficient of internal friction, coefficient of static friction at different surfaces (sun mica, canvas and mild steel surfaces), specific deformation and rupture energy of the grain were found to increase 12.21%, 4.79%, 30.47%, 30.75%, 6.74%, 32.99%, 127.05%, 60%, 18.57%, 34-67%, 69.2% and 88.87% respectively at increase of moisture content from 0.065 to 0.265 kg kg-1 dry matter. However, true density (proximate composition method), bulk density, interstices and rupture force of grain was found to be decrease 8.64%, 20.1%, 86.49% and 21.17% respectively at increase of moisture content. Similar trend was observed for barnyard kernel also. True density (toluene displacement method) was found lower as compared to true density (proximate composition method) at all experimental moisture range indicated that the presence of void space inside the grain and kernel. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Saha S.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Hedau N.K.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Kumar S.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Mahajan V.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Gupta H.S.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2010

Screening of natural biodiversity for the variation in quality traits is of prime importance for quality-breeding programmes. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accession of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, β-carotene, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Forty-two accessions of pepper (Capsicum annuum) were field grown and their mature fruits were analysed for their functional and nutritional composition. Wide variations were observed in most of the measurements, e.g. ascorbic acid (25-217 mg per 100 g), total phenolics (38.4-188.1 mg per 100 g catechol eq.), and capsaicin (0.08-0.67%), suggesting that there are considerable levels of genetic diversity. Across all accessions the concentration of ascorbic acid was negatively correlated with that of β-carotene (r = -0.33, p < 0.05). Concentrations of L-ascorbic acid were significantly greater in VLC 22-I-2-1, VLC-29-II-1-1, VLC- 30-I-1, and Janjeera Mirch compared with other accessions analysed. Total capsaicin concentrations were greatest (0.67%) in VLC-30-II-1 and lowest (0.08%) in VLC-32-3. Four factors were computed by principal-component analysis to explain 67% of the variation in the traits. The great variability for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in breeding programmes to produce fruits with value-added traits. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Mangaraj S.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Singh K.P.,Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

Optimization of machine parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) greatly overcomes the numbers of experimental trials generally undertaken for milling study of pigeon pea apart from maximizing the output of the system. The independent milling parameters for Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering dal mill viz., roller speed, emery grit size, and feed rates were optimized for pigeon pea dehulling using RSM. The roller peripheral speed of 9.6 m/s, emery grit size 1 mm, and feed rate 111 kg/h were found optimal. The dal recovery and milling efficiency at optimized independent parameters were 75% and 80%, respectively. © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

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