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Babu K.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Murthy K.R.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Krishnakumar S.,Vision Research Foundation
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation | Year: 2010

Purpose: To report 2 successive ocular malignancies in the same eye of a HIV-positive patient at different CD4 counts. Materials and methods: A 36-year-old retrovirus-positive male presented with no perception of light in the left eye of 1 month duration. CD4 counts were 44 cells/mm3. Ultrasonography showed an exudative retinal detachment. Retinal biopsy suggested an intraocular B-cell lymphoma for which he received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. He presented 3 years later with a growth in the left eye with CD4 counts of 360 cells/mm3. Results: Histopathology of enucleated eye showed a low-grade conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. At 1-year follow-up, there is no mass in the anophthalmic socket. Conclusions: This case highlights the development of 2 ocular malignancies in the same eye of an HIV-positive patient, at different CD4 counts, allowing the authors to speculate on additional factors involved in the development of the second malignancy. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Murthy K.R.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Murthy P.R.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Kapur A.,World Diabetes Foundation | Owens D.R.,University of Cardiff
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

The prevalence of diabetes in developing countries is on the increase and along with it the need to provide structured care to avoid the feared long term complications among them loss of vision and blindness due to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The biggest hurdle facing most developing countries is the lack of resources and trained manpower to both screen and treat the large number of people with DR. Countries also face the additional problem of unequal distribution of resources between the urban and rural areas. To overcome these challenges models of mobile diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment aided by the use of telemedicine have been introduced and demonstrated to be popular and effective. The aim of this review article is to describe different mobile diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment models developed in India, which can be readily replicated in developing countries presented with similar difficulties. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Babu K.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Murthy P.R.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation | Year: 2010

Purpose: To report a rare case of Lyme disease with neuroretinitis from South India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case report. A 45-year-old lady who hails from the Nagarhole forest in South India presented with a history of tick bite followed by diminution of vision in the left eye. Fundus evaluation of the left eye showed neuroretinitis. Mantoux test, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test, serum angiotensin converting enzyme, and ELISA for toxoplasmosis and rickettsial infections were negative. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive for IgM antibodies. This was confirmed by Western blot test. Results: Ocular inflammation resolved with a course of doxycyline and oral steroids. The species of the tick was also identified. Conclusion: This case highlights the need to consider Lyme disease, though rare in India, in the differential diagnosis of neuroretinitis especially if the patient hails from a forest area. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Babu K.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Babu K.,Prabha Eye Clinic and Research Center
Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection | Year: 2013

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and lung biopsies are diagnostic modalities, which play an important role in the diagnosis of sarcoid. In this review, we look at the epidemiology of sarcoid in tuberculosis-endemic regions, the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, clinical profile, diagnostic modalities, dilemma in the diagnosis, and the treatment of this disease. © 2013 Babu.


Babu K.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Babu K.,Prabha Eye Clinic and Research Center | Kini R.,Vittala International Institute of Ophthalmology | Mehta R.,Wockhardt Hospitals
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation | Year: 2010

Aim: To report a rare presentation of a large scleral nodule with bilateral disc edema as the initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective interventional case report. Results: A 58-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of nodular scleritis. Slit-lamp examination showed a large scleral nodule superiorly in the right eye. Fundus showed bilateral disc edema. High-resolution computed tomography of the thorax showed mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. Transbronchial lymph node biopsy showed epitheloid granulomas. The scleral nodule and disc edema resolved at 6 weeks with oral steroids. Conclusions: This case highlights a rare presentation of a large scleral nodule with bilateral disc edema as the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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