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Spaide R.F.,Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York | Spaide R.F.,Luesther rtz Retinal Research Center
Retina | Year: 2012

PURPOSE: To examine volume-rendered spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images in patients who had undergone vitrectomy, many of whom had internal limiting membrane removal to investigate a condition termed "dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance." METHODS: Patients who had undergone vitrectomy for either macular hole or epiretinal membrane were evaluated. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography B-scan images were acquired with the use of eye tracking at an interval of either 30 μm or 60 μm. These were registered and exported to a volume-rendering program, and the resultant volume-rendered images were evaluated. The images were graded for the presence of inner retinal abnormalities, and correlates were made to corresponding alterations seen in fundus photographs and B-scan spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images. RESULTS: There were 25 eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 72.4 (±7.3) years, 15 of whom were women. The primary preoperative diagnosis was macular hole in 10 eyes (40%) and epiretinal membrane in 15 eyes (60%). As part of the surgery, 18 eyes (72%) had planned peeling of the internal limiting membrane. Volume rendering showed that 13 eyes had pitting or dimples of the inner retinal surface that seemed to follow the course of the nerve fiber layer in the region of the macula. The inner retinal dimples occurred only in eyes that had internal limiting membrane peeling. Correlation of the volume-rendered images with B-scan spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed focal areas of thinning of the ganglion cell layer with decreased reflectivity from the nerve fiber layer in the areas of the dimples. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of eyes with internal limiting membrane peeling develop inner retinal dimples that course along the path of the nerve fiber layer. The dimples seem to be the result of an interplay between trauma and healing processes constrained by nerve fiber layer and do not appear to be because of dissociation of optic nerve fibers. The true nature of the abnormalities induced should be investigated to evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of routine internal limiting membrane peeling. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Spaide R.F.,Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York | Spaide R.F.,Luesther rtz Retinal Research Center
Retina | Year: 2011

Purpose: To develop a method of imaging the retina using wide-field fluorescein angiography and use this method to investigate the areas of perfusion abnormalities in patients treated with ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of patients recruited to a prospective study. Patients in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography. Fluorescein angiograms taken with the Optos P200 Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope were obtained of the posterior portion of the eye and of the periphery through ocular steering. Resultant images of the periphery were registered to the posterior image using thin-plate spline warping. A transformation was used to measure the retinal surface area. Perfusion characteristics were compared with injection frequencies and protocol refraction visual acuity measurements. Results: Of 22 patients imaged, 7 would be classified as nonperfused by the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study (CVOS) angiographic criteria. However, all patients showed confluent areas of nonperfusion in the retinal periphery ranging in size from 16 disk areas to 242 disk areas. The areas of peripheral nonperfusion were not significantly different in the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study-perfused group versus nonperfused group. The area of peripheral nonperfusion was not correlated with the number of injections (r = -0.13, P = 0.58), but was inversely correlated with visual acuity (r = -0.52, P = 0.013). Blood vessels at the border of the peripheral nonperfusion did not show signs of neovascular growth or profuse leakage. Conclusion: Angiographic mapping of the retina is possible using image-processing techniques with wide-field images. Eyes with central retinal vein occlusion develop widespread peripheral vascular obliteration in regions that are difficult to image with conventional fundus cameras. These nonperfused areas may have important implications for visual function. Copyright © Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc. Source


Spaide R.,Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York | Spaide R.,Luesther rtz Retinal Research Center
Retina | Year: 2013

PURPOSE:: To investigate the effect that panretinal photocoagulation to peripheral areas of retinal vascular nonperfusion has on the visual acuity and injection frequency of ranibizumab in eyes with previous central retinal vein occlusion. METHODS:: Patients enrolled in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography using the Optos P200 system. Laser photocoagulation was carried out and the extent of laser photocoagulation was evaluated with repeat wide-field angiography. Injection of ranibizumab was based on an as needed strategy throughout the study. The injection frequency in the 6 months before laser was compared with a 6-month period starting 2 months after the laser photocoagulation. The visual acuity was measured by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol refraction at both the end of the 6-month follow-up period and at the time of laser photocoagulation. RESULTS:: There were 10 patients treated in this study with a mean number of 1,757 spots of laser photocoagulation in the peripheral retina. The injection frequency in the 6-month lead-in period was 3.4 and in the 6-month follow-up period was 3.1, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.26). The visual acuity at the time of laser photocoagulation was 54.2 letters (approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/80) and at the end of the observation period was 51.4 letters, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION:: In this small study, laser photocoagulation to peripheral areas of nonperfusion as visualized by wide-field angiography did not result in either decreased injection frequency or improved visual acuity in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab. Source


Balaratnasingam C.,Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York
Retina | Year: 2015

PURPOSE:: To use volume-rendered optical coherence tomography angiography to investigate vascular proliferation in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2), extending beyond the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). METHODS:: Six eyes of four patients with MacTel2 with neovascularization proliferating external to the RPE confines were studied. Eyes were scanned using optical coherence tomography using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation techniques to derive flow information (RTVue XR; Optovue). These data were extracted and used to create volume rendered images of the area of vascular proliferation. RESULTS:: Mean age was 66.2 years. There was demonstrable vascular proliferation in the sub-RPE space observable by both optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography. Fibrovascular RPE detachments were identified in all eyes. The topographic distribution of abnormal vessels located below the plane of the deep retinal vascular plexus and above the RPE closely matched the pattern of hyperfluorescence and leakage on fluorescein angiography. Vessels under the RPE demonstrated different branching patterns and larger diameter lumens than those above the RPE, but anastomosis with the choroidal circulation was difficult to demonstrate. CONCLUSION:: This study provides evidence that sub-RPE vascular proliferation may be a complication of MacTel2. Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities are known to occur in MacTel2 and may provide a conduit for abnormal vessels in the subretinal space to proliferate into the sub-RPE compartment. The authors have no reason to exclude the possibility that the choroid contributes to the deep proliferation. © 2015 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc. Source


Staurenghi G.,University of Milan | Sadda S.,University of Southern California | Chakravarthy U.,Queens University of Belfast | Spaide R.F.,Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York
Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose To develop a consensus nomenclature for the classification of retinal and choroidal layers and bands visible on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of a normal eye. Design An international panel with expertise in retinal imaging (International Nomenclature for Optical Coherence Tomography [IN•OCT] Panel) was assembled to define a consensus for OCT imaging terminology. Participants A panel of retina specialists. Methods A set of 3 B-scan images from a normal eye was circulated to the panel before the meeting for independent assignment of nomenclature to anatomic landmarks in the vitreous, retina, and choroid. The outputs were scrutinized, tabulated, and used as the starting point for discussions at a roundtable panel meeting. The history of anatomic landmark designations over time was reviewed for the various cellular layers of the ocular structures that are visible by SD-OCT. A process of open discussion and negotiation was undertaken until a unanimous consensus name was adopted for each feature. Main Outcome Measures Definitions of normal eye features showed by SD-OCT. Results Definitions for various layers changed frequently in the literature and were often inconsistent with retinal anatomy and histology. The panel introduced the term "zone" for OCT features that seem to localize to a particular anatomic region that lacks definitely proven evidence for a specific reflective structure. Such zones include the myoid, ellipsoid, and the interdigitation zones. Conclusions A nomenclature system for normal anatomic landmarks seen on SD-OCT outputs has been proposed and adopted by the IN•OCT Panel. The panel recommends this standardized nomenclature for use in future publications. The proposed harmonizing of terminology serves as a basis for future OCT research studies. © 2014 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Source

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