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Kokubo K.,Osaka University | Shirakawa S.,Osaka University | Kobayashi N.,Osaka University | Aoshima H.,Vitamin C60 BioResearch Corporation | Oshima T.,Osaka University
Nano Research | Year: 2011

A water-soluble polyhydroxylated fullerene, i. e. a fullerenol, with 44 hydroxyl groups and 8 secondary bound water molecules, C60(OH)44·8H2O (estimated average structure), has been synthesized in a facile one step reaction from pristine C60 by hydroxylation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst, tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), under organic/aqueous bilayer conditions. The fullerenol exhibited high water solubility, up to 64.9 mg/mL, under neutral (pH = 7) conditions. Dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analysis showed a narrow particle size distribution, of 1-2 nm, indicating that the fullerenol had high dispersion properties in water. The results of particle size analyses, which both focused on a single nanoregion and were conducted using a novel induced grating (IG) method and a scanning probe microscope (SPM), were consistent with the DLS results. A plausible reaction mechanism, which includes fullerene oxide intermediates detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), has been proposed. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kato S.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Aoshima H.,Vitamin C60 BioResearch Corporation | Saitoh Y.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Miwa N.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2010

We previously reported biological safety of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in liposome consisting of hydrogenated lecithin and glycine soja sterol, as Liposome-Fullerene (0.5% aqueous phase; a particle size, 76 nm; Lpsm-Flln), and its cytoprotective activity against UVA. In the present study, Lpsm-Flln was administered on the surface of three-dimensional human skin tissue model, rinsed out before each UVA-irradiation at 4 J/cm 2, and thereafter added again, followed by 19-cycle-repetition for 4 days (sum: 76 J/cm 2). UVA-caused corneum scaling and disruption of epidermis layer were detected by scanning electron microscopy. Breakdown of collagen type I/IV, DNA strand cleavage and pycnosis/karyorrhexis were observed in vertical cross-sections of UVA-irradiated skin models visualized with fluorescent immunostain or Hoechst 33342 stain. These skin damages were scarcely repressed by liposome alone, but appreciably repressed by Lpsm-Flln of 250 ppm, containing 0.75 ppm of C60-equivalent to a 1/3300-weight amount vs. the whole liposome. Upon administration with Lpsm-Flln [16.7 μM (12 ppm): C60-equivalent] on human abdomen skin biopsies mounted in Franz diffusion cells, C60 permeated after 24 h into the epidermis at 1.86 nmol/g tissue (1.34 ppm), corresponding to 0.3% of the applied amount and a 9.0-fold dilution rate, but C60 was not detected in the dermis by HPLC, suggesting no necessity for considering a toxicity of C60 due to systemic circulation via dermal veins. Thus Lpsm-Flln has a potential to be safely utilized as a cosmetic anti-oxidative ingredient for UVA-protection. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Xiao L.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Aoshima H.,Vitamin C60 BioResearch Corporation | Saitoh Y.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Miwa N.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

By Western blot and immunostaining we proved that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-wrapped fullerene molecules (PVP-fullerene) could combine the 8- and 53-kb proteins which localize in the membrane of human skin keratinocytes HaCaT. Only fullerene molecules are able to cross the lipid membrane and conjugate 53-kb proteins in the cytosol. There are no fullerene molecules detectable in the nucleus or cytoskeleton. Ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiation on HaCaT or normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) caused nuclear fragmentations, lowering of intracellular DNA-contents below diploidy, concurrently with the repressed DNA synthesis and the increased DNA-3'OH cleavage terminals, all of which were repressed by PVP-fullerene, as shown by flow cytometry and PI- or TUNEL-stain fluorography. Translocation of the transcriptional factor NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the keratinocytes was caused with UVA and repressed by PVP-fullerene with cytoprotective effects. Thus, the PVP-fullerene may be developed as a UV-protective agent with DNA-preservative effects owing to its combinative ability to molecules in the cytoplasm and cytomembrane, and then represses cellular oxidative stress and blocks abnormal signal pathways. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Kato S.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Kikuchi R.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Aoshima H.,Vitamin C60 BioResearch Corporation | Saitoh Y.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Miwa N.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2010

The UVA-irradiation of 10 J/cm 2 on HaCaT keratinocytes increased 59.1% of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NBT assay and the cell viability decreased to 31.5% by WST-1 assay, comparing to the non-irradiated control. In the presence of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in phospholipid membrane vehicle (LiposomeFullerene: Lpsm-Flln) of 250-500 ppm, they were restored to -9.1% to + 2.3% of the ROS and 83.0-84.8% of the cell viability, but scarcely restored by the liposome without C60 (Lpsm). In HaCaT cells administered with Lpsm-Flln (150 ppm), C60 was ingested at the intracellular concentrations of 1.4-21.9 ppm for 4-24 h, and, intracellular C60 was excreted by 80% at 4 h after rinsing-out, and decreased to 2-10% after 24-48 h. C60 was predominantly distributed around the outside of nuclear membrane without deterioration of intact cell morphology according to fluorescent immunostain. Thus Lpsm-Flln is found to be an effective antioxidant that could preserve HaCaT keratinocytes against UVA-induced cellular injury. Lpsm-Flln has a potential to serve as a cosmetic material for skin protection against UVA. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Inui S.,Osaka University | Aoshima H.,Vitamin C60 BioResearch Corporation | Nishiyama A.,Osaka University | Itami S.,Osaka University
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2011

Oxidative stress plays a major role in acne formation, suggesting that oxygen radical scavengers are potential therapeutic agents. Fullerene is a spherical carbon molecule with strong radical sponge activity; therefore, we studied the effectiveness of fullerene gel in treating acne vulgaris. We performed an open trial using a fullerene gel twice a day; at 4 and 8 weeks, the mean number of inflammatory lesions (erythematous papules and pustules) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased from 16.09 ± 9.08 to 12.36 ± 7.03 (reduction rate 23.2%) and 10.0 ± 5.62 (reduction rate 37.8%), respectively. The number of pustules, consisting of accumulation of neutrophils, was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased from 1.45 ± 1.13 to 0.18 ± 0.60 (reduction rate 87.6%), and further in vitro assays of sebum production in hamster sebocytes revealed that 75 μM polyvinylpyrrolidone-fullerene inhibits sebum production, suggesting that fullerene suppresses acne through decreasing neutrophil infiltration and sebum production. After treatment for 8 weeks, the water content of the skin significantly (P < 0.05) increased from 51.7 ± 7.9 to 60.4 ± 10.3 instrumental units. Therefore, the fullerene gel may help in controlling acne vulgaris with skin care benefit. From the Clinical Editor: Fullerenes, spherical carbon cages with strong oxygen radical scavenging, with formulated into a gel and used to successfully treat acne vulgaris, an inflammatory disease associated oxidative stress. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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