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Singh B.,Banaras Hindu University | Tilak R.,Banaras Hindu University | Srivastava R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Katiyar D.,Banaras Hindu University | Chauhan R.S.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

A urinary tract infection (UTIs) is the one of the most common bacterial infection in women than in men, at a ratio of 8:1 and a major cause of morbidity. Approximately 50-60% of women report at least one UTI in their lifetime. UTI is caused by pathogenic invasion of the urinary tract which leads to an inflammatory response of the urothelium. The clinical manifestation of UTI depend upon the portion of the urinary tract involved, the etiologic organism, the severity of the infection and patients ability to mount an immune responds to it. Signs and symptoms include fever, dysuria, and urinary urgency, cloudy or malodorous urine. UTI is higher in women due to several clinical factors including anatomic differences, hormonal effects and behavioral pattern. Malnutrition, poor hygiene, low socioeconomic status is associated with UTI and these factors are rife in rural settings. UTI is mostly caused by gram negative aerobic bacilli found in GI tract. Included in this family are the Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsilla, Enterobactor, Citrobacter, Proteus and serratia species. Other common pathogens include Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus Species. E. coli is the most predominant organism. The aim of this review is to summarize the distribution, clinical sign and symptoms, laboratory profile and risk factor of urinary tract infection. Source

Singh B.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute | Katiyar D.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute | Chauhan R.S.,University of Lucknow | Kharwar R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Lall A.M.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Lactose hydrolyzing enzyme, α-galactosidases have been used in the dairy industry for the improvement of lactose intolerance. The aim of this study was to detect α-galactosidase enzyme produced by isolated Lactobacillus Plantarum from milk and cheese and effect of UV treatment on b-galactosidase. Isolated lactobacilli were cultured on MRS agar. Lactobacilli were identified by Gram stain and standard bacteriological and biochemical methods. Their ability to hydrolyze 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal)and O-nitrophenyl-D galactopyranoside (ONPG) was determined. A protein band of indicated α-galactosidase enzyme was also detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. The colonies that produced greenish blue color on X-Gal plates were lactobacilli with α-galactosidase enzyme which had ONPG positive results. The highest enzymatic value was observed in 15 minutes UV radiation and also to characterize its probable bactericins of Lactobacillus plantarum. By adding Lactobacilli producing α-galactosidase enzyme as probiotic to dairy products, could help lactose intolerant people. Source

Singh B.,Udai Pratap Autonomous College | Katiyar D.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute | Singh D.V.,Udai Pratap Autonomous College | Jayaswal A.,Banaras Hindu University
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of N fertilization on methane oxidizing bacteria that lead to changes in the microbial communities in rice agroecosystems. Variation in MOB population size due to rice varieties of three different soil type bare, bulk and rhizosphere was investigated in rainfed rice NDR-97 (Narendra-97), Pant Dhan-12 and Vanaprabha. The growth variables (shoot biomass and root biomass) were higher in fertilized plots than unfertilized plots. The ammonium-N, nitrate-N was higher in fertilized plot than unfertilized plots. There were significant differences in MOB population size during the study (p<0.05). The highest MOB bacterial population was found in rhizospheric soils. So that, MOB bacterial population range between 19.2xlO6 to 70.54xl06 cells g1 dry across soil type of varieties and treatment. N-fertilization reduces population size of MOB. Thus the result suggests that MOB population size were varied by different soil type and soil fertilization. This study showed significant impact of N-fertilization on MOB population. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia. Source

Singh P.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute | Katiyar D.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh B.,Banaras Hindu University | Srivastava A.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

The frequent, increasing drug resistance among urinary tract infections (UTIs) causing bacteria has made therapy difficult and also lead to greater use of expensive broadspectrum drugs. The aim of the study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts, a broad-spectrum therapeutic plant investigated against bacteria causing UTIs, most common diseases infecting from the neonate to the geriatric age groups. The two isolated uropathogens:1.Gram-negative, Escherichia coli; and 2.Grampositive, Staphylococcus aureus were tested against two standard antibiotics, used as a positive reference to determine the sensitivity of the test strains. The extracts of T. cordifolia were prepared from alcoholic extracts, and water reflux for aqueous extract. The antibacterial activities of extracts were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. The study showed that all three solvent extracts of T. cordifolia reveal different antibacterial activity against both uropathogenic isolates. The antibacterial effect of T. cordifolia, which were observed for zone of inhibition (ZOI) could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: ethanolic (maximum) >methanolic (moderate) >aqueous (poor). The evaluated results reveals that plant extracts have significant potential of antibacterial properties and seems promising for the development of the safe herb derived medicinal preparation for treating UTIs. Source

Singh B.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute | Katiyar D.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute | Chauhan R.S.,VitaeGen Biotech Educational and Research Institute
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

Nitrogen is the single most limiting factor for rice production. Detailed knowledge on nitrogen dynamics in rice fields is therefore of major importance for developing sustainable rice production. A field trial experiments was conducted in rainfed rice fields planted to three rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar; NDR-97 to investigate the influence of rice cultivars on nitrogen based fertilization on population size. Urea, DAP, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium nitrate were the fertilizers applied, at a rate of 100 kgNha"1 in three split doses. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicate plots for each cultivar and treatment. The most probable number of methane oxidizing bacteria was estimated on six dates within the cropping period. It was observed that the NH4 +-N μg g-1 dry soil content in soil was highest in urea fertilized NDR-97 at 20 DAS while NO3 --N content had highest at 80 DAS. Control soils (no N-fertilization) exhibited higher MCM population size than N-fertilized soils. Above conclusions were supported by measurements of MCM (methane consuming microbes) population size. The highest ammonium-N content was observed in urea (8.5 ± 0.71 μg g-1 dry soil) and lowest ammonium-N content in ammonium chloride treated plots (6.7 ± 1.5 μg g-1 dry soil) on 20 DAS. ANOVA indicated significant differences due to days fertilization and their interaction due to days x fertilization was also significant. The MCM population size was highest in control on 80 DAS (37.4 × 106 Cells g-1 dry soil) followed NH4Cl, NH4NO3, and urea treated soils. In case of fertilized plots the highest MCM population was highest on 80 (Urea 28.6 × 10 6 Cells g-1 dry soil; DAP 29.7 × 106 Cells g-1 dry soil; Ammonium nitrate 31.6 × 106 Cells g-1 dry soil and ammonium chloride 32.9 × 106 Cells g-1 dry soil) DAS and lowest on 20 DAS. Source

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