Shurson G.C.,University of Minnesota |
Salzer T.M.,University of Minnesota |
Koehler D.D.,Vita Plus Corporation |
Whitney M.H.,University of Minnesota
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Stability of vitamin activity in a swine premix containing metal specific amino acid complexes, inorganic trace minerals, or no trace minerals was evaluated over a 120-day storage period. Two vitamin-trace mineral premixes containing either metal specific amino acid complexes or inorganic trace mineral sources were formulated to contain 200% of NRC (1988) sow requirements for I, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Se based on a 5. g/kg dietary inclusion rate. A separate vitamin premix containing no trace minerals served as the control. The vitamin premix and the two vitamin-trace mineral premixes were formulated to contain the same level of vitamins. Vitamin levels exceeded NRC (1988) and were chosen to represent " typical" industry levels based on an informal survey of vitamin levels in commercial premixes in the U.S.A. Premixes were stored in an environmentally controlled feed storage room and samples were collected every month to determine vitamin activity. Minimal monthly vitamin stock losses in activity (0-1%) were observed for all vitamins except cyanocobalamin (2.8%) and choline (1.3%). Pantothenate, vitamin E, riboflavin, biotin and niacin were most resistant to destruction, while menadione, retinol, vitamin B-6, and thiamine were subject to the greatest loss of activity during the 120-day storage period. Use of metal specific amino acid complexes in vitamin-trace mineral premixes significantly reduced the loss of retinol, menadione, cyanocobalamin, thiamine, folates, vitamin B-6, and choline activity (P<0.05) compared to losses of vitamin activity in premixes containing inorganic trace minerals. Activity losses in retinol, cyanocobalamin, thiamine, and choline were similar between the vitamin premix and the vitamin-complexed trace mineral premix. Biotin activity was undetectable in the vitamin-complexed trace mineral premix due to unexplained analytical interference. Each vitamin was ranked according to relative vitamin assay cost, loss in vitamin activity per month, and susceptibility to multiple stress factors. This ranking was used to identify vitamins that could represent overall vitamin activity in a premix and could be assayed at a reasonable cost for a feed manufacturing quality control program. Retinol was identified as the best indicator vitamin, followed by thiamine, menadione, and cyanocobalamin. These results suggest that vitamin stability in swine vitamin-trace mineral premixes is improved when using metal specific amino acid complexes compared to inorganic trace mineral sources. More liberal safety margins for vitamins may be needed when formulating vitamin-trace mineral premixes using inorganic sources of trace minerals. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source
Christen K.A.,South Dakota State University |
Christen K.A.,Vita Plus Corporation |
Schingoethe D.J.,South Dakota State University |
Kalscheur K.F.,South Dakota State University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010
This study compared high protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG) with soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein supplements in dairy diets. A lactation trial used 12 multiparous cows averaging 78 d in milk at the start of the experiment in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Weeks 1 and 2 of each period were used for adjustment and wk 3 and 4 for data collection. Each treatment diet consisted of 55% forage and one of the 4 protein supplements in a concentrate mix. Total mixed diets averaged 15.3% crude protein, with 38% of the protein from one of the 4 protein supplements. Dry matter intake (24.4 kg/d) and crude protein intake (3.57 kg/d) were similar for all 4 diets. Milk production (31.8 kg/d), protein yield (1.05 kg/d), fat yield (1.29 kg/d), and protein percentage (3.31) were similar for all 4 treatment diets. Milk fat percentage was lower when fed DDGS (3.78) than when fed SBM or HPDDG (4.21), but similar with CM (4.07). Feed efficiency (1.44. kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) and nitrogen efficiency (0.29) were not affected by diet. Total milk nitrogen and true milk protein were highest when fed the HPDDG diet. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and the acetate to propionate ratio in ruminal contents and ruminal ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Arterial and venous concentrations of total essential AA tended to be lower when fed CM, reflecting lower concentrations of His, Ile, Leu, and Val when fed the CM diet. Extraction efficiency of AA from blood by the mammary gland indicated that Met was the first limiting AA when fed the SBM diet, whereas Lys was first limiting for the other diets. Phenylalanine was third limiting with all diets. Feeding HPDDG was equally as effective as feeding SBM, CM, and regular distillers grains as a protein supplement for lactating cows. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source
Tao S.,University of Florida |
Bubolz J.W.,University of Florida |
do Amaral B.C.,University of Florida |
do Amaral B.C.,Vita Plus Corporation |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011
Heat stress during the dry period negatively affects hepatic metabolism and cellular immune function during the transition period, and milk production in the subsequent lactation. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the depressed mammary gland function remain unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of heat stress during the dry period on various indices of mammary gland development of multiparous cows. Cows were dried off approximately 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 2 treatments, heat stress (HT, n = 15) or cooling (CL, n = 14), based on mature equivalent milk production. Cows in the CL treatment were provided with sprinklers and fans that came on when ambient temperatures reached 21.1°C, whereas HT cows were housed in the same barn without fans and sprinklers. After parturition, all cows were housed in a freestall barn with cooling. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430. h) and respiration rates recorded at 1500. h on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule from dry off to calving. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily up to 280 d in milk. Daily dry matter intake was measured from dry off to 42 d relative to calving. Mammary biopsies were collected at dry off, -20, 2, and 20 d relative to calving from a subset of cows (HT, n = 7; CL, n = 7). Labeling with Ki67 antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling were used to evaluate mammary cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 76.6 and not different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows had higher rectal temperatures in the morning (38.8 vs. 38.6°C) and afternoon (39.4 vs. 39.0°C), greater respiration rates (78.4 vs. 45.6 breath/min), and decreased dry matter intake (8.9 vs. 10.6. kg/d) when dry compared with CL cows. Relative to HT cows, CL cows had greater milk production (28.9 vs. 33.9. kg/d), lower milk protein concentration (3.01 vs. 2.87%), and tended to have lower somatic cell score (3.35 vs. 2.94) through 280 d in milk. Heat stress during the dry period decreased mammary cell proliferation rate (1.0 vs. 3.3%) at -20 d relative to calving compared with CL cows. Mammary cell apoptosis was not affected by prepartum heat stress. We conclude that heat stress during the dry period compromises mammary gland development before parturition, which decreases milk yield in the next lactation. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Source
Vita Plus Corporation | Date: 2009-03-31
Vita Plus Corporation | Date: 2011-07-22
Computer software that provides web-based access to applications and services through a web operating system or portal interface, namely, a computer program for the electronic storage and display of data that provides dairy owners, management teams and key personnel with web-based, real-time management in an integrated environment by multiple fragmented operational data sources and integrating them for responsible monitoring, decision making and business projections.