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Kumar R.,University of Rajasthan | Rajarajeshwari N.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2012

The prospects of natural polymers are brighter as synthetic polymers have certain disadvantages such as high cost, toxicity, environmental pollution during synthesis, non renewable sources, side effects and less patient compliance. The endosperm of Borassus flabellifer contains a high proportion of mucilage and it also being used for different therapeutic purposes. However there are no reports on isolation and characterization of mucilage of Borassus flabellifer fruit. Hence, the present study was planned to isolate, purify and to characterize Borassus flabellifer mucilage. This study elucidated the physical, thermal, sorption and functional properties Borassus flabellifer mucilage were characterized viz: elemental analysis, Fourier transmittance infra red analysis, particle size analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Borassus flabellifer mucilage had a glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting peak of 96.06°C and 292.63°C, respectively. This material showed a 7.1% % loss in weight at 200oC. The sample had peaks at approximately 20o, 19o, and 18o 2θ degrees of 2-theta (θ) in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Elemental analysis showed that Borassus flabellifer mucilage contains 40.02, 6.289, and 1.22% of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, respectively. The results of isolated mucilage from Borassus flabellifer fruit were very promising, cheap and effective natural excipient that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical formulations. © RJPT All right reserved. Source


Vanaja K.,University of Tubingen | Vanaja K.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Wahl M.A.,University of Tubingen | Bukarica L.,University of Belgrade | Heinle H.,University of Tubingen
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aim Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known antioxidant, yet in combination with other antioxidant vitamins, it was found to be more effective than any of these antioxidants alone. Present work aims to compare the antioxidant actions of resveratrol with and without vitamin C following delivery as liposomes tested using chemical and cellular antioxidative test systems. Main methods Liposomes were prepared by the thin film hydration method and characterised for percent drug entrapment (PDE), Z-average mean size (nm), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential. Antioxidative capacity was determined by studying the inhibition of AAPH induced luminol enhanced chemiluminescence and inhibition of ROS production in isolated blood leukocytes. Intracellular oxygen-derived radicals were measured using flow cytometry with buffy coats (BC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using H2DCF-DA dye. Key findings Particle size varied from 134.2 ± 0.265 nm to 103.3 ± 1.687 nm; PDI ≤ 0.3; zeta potential values were greater than - 30 mV and PDE ≥ 80%. Radical scavenging effect was enhanced with liposomal systems; oxidative burst reaction in BC was inhibited by liposomal formulations, with the effect slightly enhanced in presence of vitamin C. Reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spontaneous oxidative burst of BC and incubation of HUVECs with H 2O2 further intensified the antioxidative effects of pure RES and liposomal formulations. Significance The present work clearly shows that the antioxidative effects of resveratrol loaded into liposomes are more pronounced when compared to pure resveratrol. Liposomal resveratrol is even active within the intracellular compartments as RES could effectively quench the intracellular accumulation of ROS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gowda N.B.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Ramakrishna R.A.,R. L. Fine Chemical
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2012

A mild, selective, and green method for the reduction of unsaturated carboxylic acids with sodium borohydride-Raney nickel (W6) system in water is reported. This method is practical and safe and avoids use of organic solvents. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kumar K.V.A.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Satyanarayana S.,Andhra University | Kumar K.E.,Andhra University
JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System | Year: 2013

Introduction: The renin-angiotensin system is distributed centrally as well as peripherally, which works in association with SNS and HPA in stress. Angiotensin is considered one of the principal hormones for bringing out stress-related changes. To find the influence of enalapril on the neuromediator of CNS and periphery, the present work was carried out. The assessment of the transmitter levels was done by estimating major urinary stress metabolites like vanillylmandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 6-β-hydroxycortisol and homovanillic acid in normal and stress-induced conditions and also in the absence and presence of enalapril treatment in rats.Materials and methods: Groups of rats were subjected to a forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of enalapril. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 6-β-hydroxycortisol and homovanillic acid was determined in all groups under normal and stressed-induced conditions. Results: Daily administration of enalapril at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/body weight inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes. However, treatment with enalapril in normal conditions increased the excretion of all selected metabolites. Conclusion: It can be speculated that enalapril prevented stress-induced increases of adrenergic, serotonergic and cortical mechanisms. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Dennis T.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Meera N.K.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Binny K.,Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical science and Research | Sekhar M.S.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | And 2 more authors.
CVD Prevention and Control | Year: 2011

Hypertension is inadequately controlled in most patients due to poor adherence to treatment. Not much is known about the underlying reasons for poor adherence. The main objective of this study was to assess medication adherence in hypertensive patients and to identify the main barriers associated with medication adherence. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in the medicine outpatient department of Kempe Gowda Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, India. Self reported adherence was measured by using a short validated questionnaire and detailed patient interviews. Of the 608 patients participated, non-adherence was found in 49.67% of patients. Belief barrier was reported in 39.14% patients. Access barrier and recall barrier were reported by 82.57% and 62.17%, respectively. 78.62% of patients reported that it is difficult to pay for the medication and 54.93% indicated that it is difficult to get a refill on time. It was concluded that about half of the Indian patients studied were not adherent to their antihypertensive regimen and this might result in poor blood pressure control. Non-adherence to hypertension management remains a major limiting factor among Indians in the effective control of hypertension and in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 World Heart Federation. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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