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Gowda N.B.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Ramakrishna R.A.,R L Fine Chemical No. 15
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2010

A simple and convenient protocol for deoxygenation of aliphatic and aromatic N-oxides to the corresponding amines in good to excellent yield using sodium borohydride-Raney nickel in water is reported. Other functional moieties such as alkenes, halides, ethers, and amides are unaffected under the present reaction condition. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gowda N.B.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Ramakrishna R.A.,R. L. Fine Chemical
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2012

A mild, selective, and green method for the reduction of unsaturated carboxylic acids with sodium borohydride-Raney nickel (W6) system in water is reported. This method is practical and safe and avoids use of organic solvents. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Vanaja K.,University of Tübingen | Vanaja K.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Wahl M.A.,University of Tübingen | Bukarica L.,University of Belgrade | Heinle H.,University of Tübingen
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aim Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known antioxidant, yet in combination with other antioxidant vitamins, it was found to be more effective than any of these antioxidants alone. Present work aims to compare the antioxidant actions of resveratrol with and without vitamin C following delivery as liposomes tested using chemical and cellular antioxidative test systems. Main methods Liposomes were prepared by the thin film hydration method and characterised for percent drug entrapment (PDE), Z-average mean size (nm), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential. Antioxidative capacity was determined by studying the inhibition of AAPH induced luminol enhanced chemiluminescence and inhibition of ROS production in isolated blood leukocytes. Intracellular oxygen-derived radicals were measured using flow cytometry with buffy coats (BC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using H2DCF-DA dye. Key findings Particle size varied from 134.2 ± 0.265 nm to 103.3 ± 1.687 nm; PDI ≤ 0.3; zeta potential values were greater than - 30 mV and PDE ≥ 80%. Radical scavenging effect was enhanced with liposomal systems; oxidative burst reaction in BC was inhibited by liposomal formulations, with the effect slightly enhanced in presence of vitamin C. Reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spontaneous oxidative burst of BC and incubation of HUVECs with H 2O2 further intensified the antioxidative effects of pure RES and liposomal formulations. Significance The present work clearly shows that the antioxidative effects of resveratrol loaded into liposomes are more pronounced when compared to pure resveratrol. Liposomal resveratrol is even active within the intracellular compartments as RES could effectively quench the intracellular accumulation of ROS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Dennis T.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Meera N.K.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Binny K.,Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical science and Research | Sekhar M.S.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | And 2 more authors.
CVD Prevention and Control | Year: 2011

Hypertension is inadequately controlled in most patients due to poor adherence to treatment. Not much is known about the underlying reasons for poor adherence. The main objective of this study was to assess medication adherence in hypertensive patients and to identify the main barriers associated with medication adherence. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in the medicine outpatient department of Kempe Gowda Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, India. Self reported adherence was measured by using a short validated questionnaire and detailed patient interviews. Of the 608 patients participated, non-adherence was found in 49.67% of patients. Belief barrier was reported in 39.14% patients. Access barrier and recall barrier were reported by 82.57% and 62.17%, respectively. 78.62% of patients reported that it is difficult to pay for the medication and 54.93% indicated that it is difficult to get a refill on time. It was concluded that about half of the Indian patients studied were not adherent to their antihypertensive regimen and this might result in poor blood pressure control. Non-adherence to hypertension management remains a major limiting factor among Indians in the effective control of hypertension and in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 World Heart Federation. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nagaraju K.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Manasa S.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Manjunath R.,Hospital and Research Center
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Pharmacovigilance is defined as the science and activities concerned with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse reactions to medicines. Main goal of pharmacovigilance in geriatric is to improve the safe and rational use of medicines and thereby improving patient care, health of the society. Pharmacovigilance is particularly concerned with the adverse drug reactions (ADR’s). Hence, a closer pharmacovigilance studies are much needed in the older age group due to polypharmacy, which can cause ADR’s leading to hospital readmission and the direct and indirect treatment cost to treat the ADR’s. The objective of this study was to assess the prescribing practice and ADR’s in geriatric patients with two or more comorbid condition during the stay in the hospital and to follow-up on 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th, 75th and 90th day after discharge. Methods: The study was conducted in Medicine Department, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Science Hospital and Research Centre, Bengaluru. It is a non-randomized observational prospective study conducted for a period of 6 months, to assess the prescribing pattern and incidence of ADR in the geriatric population. We made an attempt to assess the incidence of ADRs after discharge from the hospital by doing follow-ups. Results: Among the 50 patients included during the study, 29 (58%) patients were between the age group of 60 and 65 years, out of which 20 were female, and 9 were found to be male patients. Out of 50 patients, 40 (37.7%) patients suffered from hypertension, 30 (28.3%) patients had diabetes mellitus. The most commonly used antihypertensive drug was found that 20 (33.8%) patients were on calcium channel blockers which were used majorly, in anti-diabetic drugs, insulin was used in 19 (44.1%) patients, followed by 10 (23.2%) patients who were prescribed oral hypoglycemic like metformin. Number of drugs prescribed per prescription was found that 68% of patients were prescribed with 6-10 drugs. Among the study population, we found the incidence of three mild ADRs during follow-up. During analyzing of prescription, we found totally 122 drug interactions, out of which 83 (68%) were moderate, 30 (25%) were mild and 9 (7%) were found to be severe drug interactions. Conclusion: We observed that monitoring of drugs for ADRs in the geriatric population is mandatory due to their polypharmacy. Follow-up studies after discharge for monitoring of ADR will be one step ahead to improve the quality of life. This can reduce the hospital readmission, which can in turn reduce to the economic burden of the patients. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science, Government Science College and Andhra University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS | Year: 2015

Various stress hormones are responsible for bringing out stress-related changes and are implicated in learning and memory processes. The extensive clinical experience of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and direct renin inhibitor as antihypertensive agents provides anecdotal evidence of improvements in cognition. The neurochemical basis underlying the anti-stress and nootropic effects are unclear. This study was aimed to determine the effects of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination on the neuromediators of the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery as well as on cognitive function.Groups of rats were subjected to a forced swim stress for one hour after daily treatment with aliskiren, valsartan and their combination. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandellic acid (VMA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 6--hydroxycortisol (6--OH) cortisol and homovanillic acid (HVA) was determined in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. Nootropic activity was studied using cooks pole climbing apparatus and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity by Ellmans method.Administration of aliskiren (10 mg/kg), valsartan (20 mg/kg) and their combination at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg respectively reduced the urinary metabolite levels. Further, all drugs showed significant improvement in scopolamine-impaired performance and produced inhibition of the AChE enzyme.The present study provides scientific support for the anti-stress and nootropic activities of aliskiren, valsartan and their combination.


Ahmed M.A.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

To determine the risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic patients and to study the management of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we conducted a hospital-based prospective study in the Internal Medicine department of our hospital on 60 patients with DN and 60 diabetic patients without DN. An odds ratio (OR) disclosed the following risk factors: Hypertension (OR = 2.06), family history of diabetes (OR = 1.23), family history of DN (OR = 2.86), uncontrolled hyperglycemia (OR = 11.80), obesity (OR = 1.07), duration of diabetes between 11 and 20 years (OR = 4.69), smoking (OR = 2.79), alcohol consumption (OR = 3.75), other complications (OR = 2.03), lack of physical activity (OR = 1.51) and anemia (OR = 2.29). According to these risk factors, we suggest that improving patient's knowledge on diabetes and its treatment, life style modifications and aggressive management of the disease may delay the progression of disease to advanced stages.


Sumanth M.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Anusha,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Swetha S.,Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2012

To elucidate the mechanism of anti-arthritic action of the Arthosansar, a polyherbal formulation has proven anti-arthritic activity. The mechanism is elucidated by emphasizing on immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory and analgesic action. The study is carried out using CFA induced arthritis in rats, carrageenan induced peritonitis in mice, inflammation induced by various phlogistic agents in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and tail-immersion test in mice. Arthosansar significantly (P<0.001) inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes in CFA induced arthritic rats. Arthosansar significantly (P<0.001) inhibited neutrophil infiltration in carrageenan induced peritonitis in mice, inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators (PGs, histamine, 5-HT and bradykinin) and pain mediated through these mediators in acetic acid induced writhing test. Arthosansar also showed significant (P<0.001) increase in latency period in tail immersion test in mice. Arthosansar exhibits anti-arthritic activity by. (a) Inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation (b) Inhibiting production of IF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 (c) Inhibiting release of inflammatory mediators PGs, histamine, 5-HT and bradykinin (d) Exhibits antinociceptive action through opioid receptors and by promoting release of endogenous peptides.


PubMed | Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Indian journal of tuberculosis | Year: 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), commonly affecting the lungs. All health care professionals including the pharmacists provide a valuable public health role in promoting community awareness of TB particularly in reducing stigma attached to TB. Thus, creating awareness at a community level could play a vital role in control and prevention of TB.To determine whether educational intervention would affect the level of TB awareness among students of selected schools and pre-university colleges (PUCs) in Bangalore urban and Bangalore rural regions.The present study was conducted among the students of 8th, 9th, 10th and PUC in Bangalore rural and urban jurisdiction (n=2635). A questionnaire was designed in English and Kannada language, consisting of 20 questions with multiple-choice answers. A 30-minute visual health education was given on TB in English, followed by general pictorial presentation, and the data were collected as pre-test and post-test.Data collected from 2635 participants during pre- and post-education session revealed that mean score improved from 8.772.59 to 14.951.99. Impact of the education session showed a significant knowledge improvement about TB from 1.59% (pre-education) to 49.67% (post-education).The present study clearly demonstrated that a simple, 30-minute health education session did have a positive impact on knowledge and awareness about TB among school children as observed with increase in mean knowledge score from pre-test to post-test, indicating that empowerment of students could guide the community on various aspects of TB.


PubMed | Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology | Year: 2016

Dental implants of tinidazole were formulated using poly (-caprolactone), a biodegradable polymer and evaluated. Clinical evaluation was carried out in ten patients with acute peridontitis. Various clinical parameters viz., gingival index, plaque score, attachment gain, reduction in pocket depth were evaluated after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of treatment and compared with placebo as control. There was significant improvement in the healing of periodontal pockets treated with tinidazole implants as compared to the control sites. Estimation of tinidazole in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) revealed that the drug levels above the minimum inhibitory concentration (5.9 g/mg) for many of the periodontal pathogens was maintained throughout the period of study (40 days). This confirms the clinical efficacy of the dose and the duration of the study. It was found that biodegradable carrier was better accepted than the non-biodegradable carriers reported earlier.

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