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BIRMINGHAM, AL, United States

Brochu C.A.,University of Iowa | Parris D.C.,Bureau of Natural History | Grandstaff B.S.,University of Pennsylvania | Denton R.K.,Vista Engineering, Inc. | Gallagher W.B.,Rider University
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2012

A lower jaw and associated postcranial remains from the Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene Hornerstown Formation of New Jersey form the basis of a new crocodyliform species, Borealosuchus threeensis. Although one of the oldest known species of Borealosuchus, phylogenetic analysis supports a closer relationship to Borealosuchus from the early Eocene than with other Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene forms. This is based on the shared presence of a short mandibular symphysis excluding the splenial, a small external mandibular fenestra, and ventral osteoderms composed of two sutured ossifications. It is also similar to Borealosuchus material from the Paleocene of western Texas, though conspecificity cannot be demonstrated at present. A close relationship with the basal alligatoroids Leidyosuchus or Diplocynodontinae is not supported. The distribution of lower jaws with very small slit-like external mandibular fenestrae, or no fenestrae at all, among basal crocodylian lineages (including Borealosuchus) and close crocodylian relatives suggests the fenestrae may have been ancestrally absent in Crocodylia and regained two or more times. Current phylogenetic hypotheses are consistent with dispersal of more-derived species of Borealosuchus to the Western Interior during the Paleocene, and they indicate the presence of several unsampled lineages crossing the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Chou Y.K.,University of Alabama | Thompson R.G.,Vista Engineering, Inc. | Kumar A.,University of South Florida
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2010

CVD-diamond for dry drilling applications is reported. Specifically, the fabrication of nanostructured diamond-coated drills is outlined. Tool life is evaluated by dry drilling of aluminum alloy and nanostructured diamond-coated drills show a superior performance to uncoated drills. In addition, different surface treatments have been studied with the effects on diamond film deposition and delamination investigated. Moreover, drill edge geometry has been evaluated. Major findings indicate that the drill edge radius plays a critical role to the drilling performance. A slightly honed edge may lead to improved performance due to the reduction of deposition stresses at the tool edge. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 746.37K | Year: 2011

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) represent a collection of medical and dental conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and/or the muscles of mastication, as well as contiguous tissue structures. For somepatients with severe TMJ degeneration, a prosthetic replacement may be required. However, long-term success and functioning of current implant designs remains a serious problem due, in large part, to the deterioration of the implant and surrounding tissueresulting from wear debris. During Phase I of this project, the UAB and Vista Engineering team developed novel nanotechnology diamond coatings with enhanced adhesion and wear properties for articulation components in TMJ devices. This new technology willbe used in the proposed Phase II to enable new total replacement TMJ prostheses of smaller size and longer life. The smaller sized prosthesis designs will enable minimally invasive clinical pathways targeted for a single-incision implantation. The new TMJprostheses will be designed using finite element modeling and analysis to minimize the device size based on the use of nanostructured diamond on the articulating surfaces. The prototype designs will be manufactured and tested in a TMJ, mandibular wear simulator. Successful designs will be carried to clinical translation studies using a miniature pig animal model. Commercialization potential for the product will be developed through prosthesis design, prototype wear testing and clinical translation. Lettersof support for this Phase II project have come from biomedical and venture capital companies in support of our commercialization plan. UAB and Vista Engineering have a strong track record of collaboration culminating in the licensing (to Vista Engineering)of a UAB patent involving this technology: Process for Ultra Smooth Diamond Coating on Metals and Uses Thereof , Patent # 6,183,818. Our specific aims are as follows: Specific Aim 1: Optimize New Designs for Minimally Invasive TMJ Total Replacement Prosthesis by Computer Modeling and Analysis. Specific Aim 2: Manufacture Prototype Prostheses of Promising Minimally Invasive Designs. Specific Aim 3: Rank and Revise Computer-Optimized Designs Based on Test Results from Mandibular Wear Simulator Specific Aim4: Conduct Clinical Translation Studies on Two Most Promising Designs PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We propose the use of a nanotechnology approach, using nanostructured diamond for controlling interfaces between Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) implants and the surrounding tissues, to improve the fixation, durability and osseointegration for long-term implant success. As many as 60,000 Americans could benefit from the nanostructured diamond-diamond components that will facilitate reductions in implant device size and enable a clinically less- invasive route to joint restoration. We also propose a clear pathway for commercialization of the nanotechnology enabled TMJ prosthesis.

Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 398.77K | Year: 2004

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will develop nanocrystalline diamond coatings on tungsten-carbide cutting tools with technical attributes that surpass the current generation of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond coatings as well as tools made from polycrystalline diamond (PCD) wafers. The problem with CVD diamond coatings for cutting tools is poor surface finish and weak adhesion. Nanocrystalline CVD diamond deposited using microwave plasma (MP) techniques overcomes these problems with a smooth finish that is well adhered. This makes the nanocrystalline diamond a potential competitor to PCD diamond by lowering the price and increasing productivity. The research proposed for Phase II will use a 30kW MP-CVD reactor to investigate the relationships between nanocrystalline structure and technical performance. The structure will be controlled by process variables. Technical performance will be measured by mechanical testing and field testing on the proposed target application of machining cast aluminum-silicon alloy. The anticipated technical result will be direct correlations between structure, properties and performance that can be used to optimize nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining automotive drive-train components. Commercial applications of nanocrystalline diamond coatings are far reaching due to applications in the cutting tool industry that promote the use of hard-to-finish advanced materials; applications in pulp and paper for cutting and guides, applications in textiles for guides and applications in various bearing surface applications such as deep-well oil drill-head bearings. The National Institute of Health is also sponsoring research on nanocrystalline diamond applications in biomedical hardware surfaces subject to wear. Additionally, environmental impact of cutting fluid and related waste from machining processes are driving manufacturers to implement dry machining processes. MP-CVD nanocrystalline diamond tooling is the ideal tool for dry machining nonferrous materials.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 221.88K | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Millions of Americans suffer from the debilitating disease of temporomandibular joint TMJ disorder affecting their ability to eat talk and live their lives For the patients whose joints do not respond to basic treatments and continue to have long term problems a doctor may recommend to perform surgical procedures to correct underlying problems in the joint The last form of treatment available is the surgical replacement of the entire joint with an implanted prosthesis Often the patient that receives this final recommendation has endured years of suffering and many forms of partial treatment of the problem frequenting many different doctors from different fields such as neurosurgeons rheumatologists and dental surgeons Current guidance from the NIH suggests that all forms of treatment be exhausted before resorting to a non reversible surgical treatment the total joint replacement being the treatment of last resort There are a large number of people for whom this final treatment is necessary but doctors are reluctant to recommend that the surgery be performed Vista Engineering and the University of Alabama at Birmingham UAB have been developing a next generation diamond surfaced TMJ prosthesis implant in an attempt to revolutionize this market This device is less invasive with a reduced surgical procedure and greater biocompatibility The very nature of the device is innovative in that it is not a total joit replacement device but a resurfacing device where the majority of the existing joint is retained including all the joint stabilizing muscles The proposed research is innovative because an animal model for the TMJ has not been proven Furthermore the long term viability of diamond surfaces for implants is not well studied The proposed research will evaluate the performance of the UAB Vista diamond surfaced TMJ at the conclusion of a month animal trial involving diamond surfaced implants in miniature pigs plus a control device in an eighth The surgeon will examine the tissue and health of the TMJ prior to extraction Research on the explant devices will focus on the integration of the bone to the implant and a search for evidence of giant cell foreign body GCFB reactions The integrity of the diamond surfaces indications of articulation behavior and the fixation of the device to the bone will be determined through laboratory investigations PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE This grant will be used to research and analyze the results of an animal study currently in progress where a next generation temporomandibular joint prosthesis is being tested in vivo The current reluctance by surgeons to perform a total joint replacement in patients with severe TMJ disorder needs to be overcome by introducing an alternative to current implant prosthesis designs The UAB Vista implant is more biocompatible reduces the surgical complexity of the procedure and preserves the patientandapos s joint functionality

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