Vision Research Institute

Lowell, MA, United States

Vision Research Institute

Lowell, MA, United States
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Csaszar-Nagy N.,Montevideo 5 | Csaszar-Nagy N.,Gaspar Karoly University Psychological Institute | Bokkon I.,Montevideo 5 | Bokkon I.,Vision Research Institute
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2017

In the 20th century, mother-infant separation shortly after birth in hospitals became routine and unique to humans. However, this hospital birth practice is different from the practice in our evolutionary history, where newborn survival depended on close and essentially continuous maternal contact. This time shortly after birth represents a psychophysiologically sensitive or critical period for programming future physiology and behaviour. We hypothesize that early maternal separation as conducted in conventional hospital practice may induce similar epigenetic changes similar to those found in various mental diseases that may also be implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Csaszar N.,Gaspar Karoly University Psychological Institute | Scholkmann F.,University of Zürich | Scholkmann F.,Research Office for Complex Physical and Biological Systems ROCoS | Salari V.,Isfahan University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2016

Phosphenes are experienced sensations of light, when there is no light causing them. The physiological processes underlying this phenomenon are still not well understood. Previously, we proposed a novel biopsychophysical approach concerning the cause of phosphenes based on the assumption that cellular endogenous ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is the biophysical cause leading to the sensation of phosphenes. Briefly summarized, the visual sensation of light (phosphenes) is likely to be due to the inherent perception of UPE of cells in the visual system. If the intensity of spontaneous or induced photon emission of cells in the visual system exceeds a distinct threshold, it is hypothesized that it can become a conscious light sensation. Discussing several new and previous experiments, we point out that the UPE theory of phosphenes should be really considered as a scientifically appropriate and provable mechanism to explain the physiological basis of phosphenes. In the present paper, we also present our idea that some experiments may support that the cortical phosphene lights are due to the glutamate-related excess UPE in the occipital cortex. © 2016 by De Gruyter.


Vimal R.L.P.,Vision Research Institute
Journal of Integrative Neuroscience | Year: 2010

We incorporate the dual-mode concept in our dual-aspect PE-SE (proto-experience-subjective experience) framework. The two modes are: (1) the non-tilde mode that is the physical (material) and mental aspect of cognition (memory and attention) related feedback signals in a neural-network, which refers to the cognitive nearest past approaching towards present; and (2) the tilde mode that is the material and mental aspect of the feed-forward signals due to external environmental input and internal endogenous input, which pertains to the nearest future approaching towards present and is a entropy-reversed representation of non-tilde mode. Furthermore, one could argue that there are at least five sub-pathways in the stimulus-dependent feed-forward pathway and cognitive feedback pathway for information transfer in the brain dynamics: (i) classical axonal-dendritic neural sub-pathway including electromagnetic information field sub-pathway; (ii) quantum dendritic-dendritic microtubule (MT) (dendritic webs) sub-pathway; (iii) Ca++-related astroglial-neural sub-pathway; (iv) (a) the sub-pathway related to extrasynaptic signal transmission between fine distal dendrites of cortical neurons for the local subtle modulation due to voltages created by intradendritic dual-aspect charged surface effects within the Debye layer around endogenous structures such as microtubules (MT) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in dendrites, and (b) the sub-pathway related to extracellular volume transmission as fields of neural activity for the global modulation in axonal-dendritic neural sub-pathway; and (v) the sub-pathway related to information transmission via soliton propagation. We propose that: (i) the quantum conjugate matching between experiences in the mental aspect of the tilde mode and that of the non-tilde mode is related more to the mental aspect of the quantum microtubule-dendritic-web and less to that of the non-quantum sub-pathways; and (ii) the classical matching between experiences in the mental aspect of the tilde mode and that of the non-tilde mode is related to the mental aspect of the non-quantum sub-pathways (such as classical axonal-dendritic neural sub-pathway). In both cases, a specific SE is selected when the tilde mode interacts with the non-tilde mode to match for a specific SE, and when the necessary ingredients of SEs (such as the formation of neural networks, wakefulness, re-entry, attention, working memory, and so on) are satisfied. When the conjugate match is made between the two modes, the world-presence (Now) is disclosed. The material aspects in the tilde mode and that in the non-tilde mode are matched to link structure with function, whereas the mental aspects in the tilde mode and that in the non-tilde mode are matched to link experience with structure and function. © 2010 Imperial College Press.


Vimal R.L.P.,Vision Research Institute
Mind and Matter | Year: 2010

About forty meanings attributed to the term consciousness can be identified and categorized based on functions and experiences. The prospects for reaching any single, agreed-upon, theory-independent definition of consciousness appear remote. Here, the goal is to search for a theory-dependent optimal (with the least number of problems) and general definition accommodating most views. This quest is mostly based on the premise that evolution must have optimized our mental system in terms of experience and function. Based on a dual-aspect dual-mode proto-experience/subjective experience optimal framework, an optimal definition of consciousness describes it as a mental aspect of a system or a process with two sub-aspects: conscious experience and conscious function. A more general definition describes consciousness as a mental aspect of a system or a process, which is a conscious experience, a conscious function, or both, depending on contexts and particular biases (e.g. metaphysical assumptions). Both experiences and functions can be conscious and/or non-conscious. Our definitions are a posteriori insofar as they are based on observation and categorization. © 2010 Imprint Academic.


Bokkon I.,Vision Research Institute | Vas J.P.,University of Miskolc | Csaszar N.,National Center for Spinal Disorders
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2014

Here, we present various research results and thoughts with the intention of challenging notions about free choice. Namely, we describe the concept of transgenerational transmission of epigenetic information and discuss its non-conscious effects on cognitive abilities, behavioral and emotional patterns, and responses with regard to one's life and decisions, and the impact these have on the concept of free will. In addition, we discuss the essential role of unconscious mechanisms in human decision processes. We also show that twin loss in the womb can have a powerful lifelong impact on the surviving twin through non-conscious context-dependent epigenetic changes. Finally, we hypothesize that human explicit self-consciousness may be an active executer that intermediates between unconsciousness and the external environment by means of feedback and feed-forward interactions. This executive function makes it possible for self-consciousness to continuously develop in self-organized evolution. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.


Bokkon I.,Vision Research Institute | Mallick B.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Tuszynski J.A.,University of Alberta
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Recently, we proposed a novel biophysical concept regarding on the appearance of brilliant lights during near death experiences (NDEs) (Bókkon and Salari, 2012). Specifically, perceiving brilliant light in NDEs has been proposed to arise due to the reperfusion that produces unregulated overproduction of free radicals and energetically excited molecules that can generate a transient enhancement of bioluminescent biophotons in different areas of the brain, including retinotopic visual areas. If this excess of bioluminescent photon emission exceeds a threshold in retinotopic visual areas, this can appear as (phosphene) lights because the brain interprets these intrinsic retinotopic bioluminescent photons as if they originated from the external physical world. Here, we review relevant literature that reported experimental studies (Imaizumi et al., 1984; Suzuki et al., 1985) that essentially support our previously published conception, i.e., that seeing lights in NDEs may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent biophotons. Next, we briefly describe our biophysical visual representation model that may explain brilliant lights experienced during NDEs (by phosphenes as biophotons) and REM sleep associated dream-like intrinsic visual imageries through biophotons in NDEs. Finally, we link our biophysical visual representation notion to self-consciousness that may involve extremely low-energy quantum entanglements. This article is intended to introduce novel concepts for discussion and does not pretend to give the ultimate explanation for the currently unanswerable questions about matter, life and soul; their creation and their interrelationship. © 2013 Bókkon, Mallick and Tuszynski.


Theory of everything must include consciousness. In this article, we focus on introducing the subjective experience (SE) aspect of consciousness in modern quantum physics, namely, loop quantum gravity (LQG) and string theory by using the methodology of examining invariance of these theories under the PE-SE transformations, where PEs (proto-experiences) are precursors of SEs. In our dual-aspect-dual-mode PE-SE framework, (i) each of strings, loops, elementary particles, inert matter, or neural-networks has physical (material) and mental aspects, and (ii) there are three competing hypotheses: superposition based H1, superposition-then-integration H2, and integration based H3 as discussed in Part I. In Part I and Part II of this series of 3 articles, we introduced the SE aspect of consciousness in classical and orthodox quantum physics, respectively, which are invariant under PE-SE transformations. In the current Part III, the critical components of LQG with Palatini action appear invariant under this transformation. In string theory, for H1 and H2, we quantitatively introduce the superposition of potential experiences (SEs/PEs) in the mental aspect of bosonic and fermionic strings using the Polyakov action. We find that experiences are independent of the time-like and space-like parameters (τ, σ). This is interpreted as a string is a dual-aspect entity and all fundamental potential SEs/PEs that are superposed in the mental aspect of the string remain invariant with time and space. The introduction of mental aspect in this manner suggests that the mental aspect of string could be in all dimensions: both (3+1)D real dimensions and also in the hidden dimensions that are compactified (curled up). In addition, the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions were also satisfied. These led us to conclude that the physical aspect of the behavior of system in string theory remains invariant under the introduction of experiences aspect of consciousness in the mental aspect of strings. For hypothesis H3, the equations of string theory remain the same as they are; we simply need to acknowledge that a string has dual-aspect; its mental aspect is string-PE. Furthermore, if the introduction of SE aspect of consciousness in string theory is interpreted to imply that experiences are independent of time and space in all dimensions, it may not be true in conscious beings. This is because SEs change with subjects across space and time. This fact is revealed in the introduction of SE aspect of consciousness in general theory of relativity of classical physics: (i) For the structure of spacetime (empty space or the vacuum without matter), potential SEs are superposed in the mental aspect of spacetime and are embedded in spacetime geometry. (ii) For matter field, potential SEs/PEs are superposed in the mental aspect of each elementary particle (fermion or boson including graviton); wherever these particles move, superposed potential SEs/PEs must also move with them to conserve the superposed potential SEs/PEs. (iii) However, since our specific SE is the result of matching and selection processes that actualize/realize the relevant potential SE, the SE can change with space and time. For example, the neural correlate/analog of experiencing redness is V4/V8/VO-red-green neural-net with redness state. When a subject moves, the specific SE redness also moves with the subject's correlated neural-net. SEs also change with time as stimuli change. In other words, SEs in a subject change with spacetime. We conclude that it is possible to unify SEs/PEs aspect of consciousness with all four fundamental physical forces by the introduction of (i) potential SEs/PEs (as in H1) or PEs (as in H2) in latent superposed form in the mental aspect of bosonic and fermionic strings or (ii) the bosonic-string-PE and fermionic-string-PE based on integration principle (as in H3). This leads us towards the theory of everything.


Theory of everything must include consciousness. In this Part I of the series of three articles, we introduce the subjective experience (SE) and/or proto-experience (PE) aspect of consciousness in classical physics, where PEs are precursors of SEs. In our dual-aspect-dual-mode PE-SE framework, it was hypothesized that fundamental entities (strings or elementary particles: fermions and bosons) have two aspects: (i) material aspect such as mass, charge, spin, and space-time, and (ii) mental aspect, such as experiences. There are three competing hypotheses: (1) superposition based Hi (SEs/PEs are superposed in the mental aspect of entities; when a specific stimulus is presented to the neural-network, the associated specific SE is selected by the matching and selection process and experienced by this network), (2) superposition-then-integration based H2 (only PEs are superposed, which are integrated by neural-Darwinism leading to specific SEs) and (3) integration based H3 (each entity has its own PE, which keeps on transforming appropriately as matter evolves from elementary particles to neural-networks; it is a dual-aspect panpsychism). We found that the followings, in classical physics, are invariant under the PE-SE transformation: electromagnetic strength tensor, electromagnetic stress-energy tensor, the electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's equations), Newtonian gravitational field, the entropic force, Special and General Theory of Relativity. Our analysis suggests that (i) SEs are embedded in space-time geometry for the structure of space-time (empty space or the vacuum without matter). (ii) For matter field, SEs can move with spatiotemporal coordinates of matter because it is in the mental aspect of matter as both mental and material aspects are always together in the dual-aspect-dual-mode optimal PE-SE framework. (iii) Our specific SE is the result of matching and selection processes and can change with space and time. For example, the experience redness has V4/V8/VO-red-green neural-network with redness-state as neural correlates. When a subject moves, the specific SE redness also moves with the subject's correlated neural-network. In addition, SEs can change with time as stimuli change. In other words, SEs in a subject change with space-time. We conclude that it is possible to introduce the SE/PE aspect of consciousness in classical physics. In Parts II and III, the SE aspect of consciousness will be introduced in orthodox quantum physics and modern quantum physics (such as loop quantum gravity and string theory), respectively. Thus, the introduction of the SE aspect of consciousness in physics leads us to unify consciousness with known four fundamental forces, which entails towards a theory of everything.


Theory of everything must include consciousness. In Part I of this series of 3 articles, the subjective experience (SE) aspect of consciousness was introduced in classical physics by examining the invariance of various components of theories under PE-SE transformations, where PEs (proto-experiences) are precursors of SEs. We found that (i) classical physics is invariant under the PE-SE transformation, (ii) potential SEs are embedded in space-time geometry for the structure of space-time in superposed form, (iii) potential SEs can move with spatiotemporal coordinates of matter for matter field because both mental and material aspects are always together in the dual-aspect-dual-mode optimal PE-SE framework, and (iv) our specific SE is the result of matching and selection processes and can change with space and time. For example, experiencing redness has neural correlates of V4/V8/VO-red-green neural-net with redness state. When a subject moves, the specific SE redness also moves with the subject's correlated neural-net. In the current Part II, the SE aspect of consciousness is introduced in orthodox quantum physics by examining its invariance under the PE-SE transformations. We found that the followings are invariant under the PE-SE transformations: Schrödinger equation, current, Dirac Lagrangian, the Lagrangian for a charged self-interacting scalar field, and Standard Model (the Lagrangian for free gauge field and Lagrangian for the electromagnetic interaction of a charged scalar field). In Part III the SE aspect of consciousness will be introduced to unify it with fundamental forces in loop quantum gravity and string theory of modern quantum physics. All parts together lead us towards the theory of everything.


Bokkon I.,Vision Research Institute | Vimal R.L.P.,Vision Research Institute
Activitas Nervosa Superior | Year: 2013

The rich concentration of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (CO) blobs in the V1 (striate) primate visual cortex has never been explained. Although the distribution of CO blobs provided a persuasive example of columnar structure in the V1, there are contradictions about the existence of hypercolumns. Since photoreceptors and other retinal cells process and convey basically external visible photonic signals, it suggests that one of the most important tasks of early visual areas is to represent these external visible color photonic signals during visual perception. This representation may occur essentially in CO-rich blobs of the V1. Here we suggest that the representation of external visible photon signals (i.e. visual representation) can be the most energetic allocation process in the brain, which is reasonably performed by the highest density neuronal V1 areas and mitochondrial-rich cytochrome oxidases. It is also raised that the functional unit for phosphene induction can be linked to small clusters of CO -rich blobs in V1. We present some implications about distinction between the physics of visible photons/light and its subjective experiences. We also discuss that amodal and modal visual completions are possible due to the visual perception induced visualization when the brain tries to interpret the unseen parts of objects or represent features of perceived objects that are not actually visible. It is raised that continuously produced intrinsic bioluminescent photons from retinal lipid peroxidation may have functional role in initial development of retinogeniculate pathways as well as initial appearance topographic organizations of V1 before birth. Finally, the metaphysical framework is the extended version of dual-aspect monism (DAMv) that has the least number of problems compared to all other frameworks and hence it is better than the materialism that is currently dominant in science.

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