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Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

Pflugfelder S.C.,Baylor College of Medicine | Baudouin C.,Quinze Vingts Hospital | Baudouin C.,Vision Institute
Clinical Ophthalmology

Ocular surface disease (OSD) is common among glaucoma patients. Clinical assessment of OSD can be challenging. This review focuses on some of the limitations relating to both subjective and objective measures of OSD, including dry eye. A survey of the literature was conducted to identify the caveats associated with different methods of assessing OSD. The effect of preservatives on the ocular surface, with respect to glaucoma patients in particular, was also reviewed. Objective methods for assessing ocular surface health and disease include the Schirmer test, tear break-up time, fluorescein turnover, corneal and conjunctival staining, tear osmolarity, and vital dyes. These measures all have limitations in terms of their ability to grade the severity of OSD. Previous studies using the OSD Index showed a mild-to-moderate correlation to dry eye disease severity. Other scoring systems for dry eye have shown a relationship to patient symptom scores or quality of life. Due to the challenges clinicians face concerning both subjective and objective ocular surface health assessments, discerning clinical improvement in ocular surface disease can be a challenge. Further research is needed in order to optimize existing clinical methods and/or identify alternative techniques for assessing OSD in the glaucoma population. © 2011 Pflugfelder and Baudouin. Source

Voskanyan L.,Sv Malayan Ophthalmological Center | Garcia-Feijoo J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Feijoo J.,Instituto Investigacion Sanitaria | Belda J.I.,Hospital de Torrevieja | And 4 more authors.
Advances in Therapy

Introduction: Micro-invasive glaucoma surgical implantation of trabecular micro-bypass stents, previously shown to be safe and effective for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects during cataract surgery, was considered for evaluation as a sole procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy after ab interno implantation of two Glaukos Trabecular Micro-Bypass iStent inject second generation devices in subjects with OAG. This study was performed at sites in France, Germany, Italy, Republic of Armenia, and Spain. Methods: In this pan-European, multi-center prospective, post-market, unmasked study, 99 patients with OAG on at least two topical ocular hypotensive medications who required additional IOP lowering to control glaucoma disease underwent implantation of two GTS400 stents in a stand-alone procedure. Patients were qualified if they presented with preoperative mean IOP between 22 and 38 mmHg after medication washout. Postoperatively, subjects were assessed at Day 1, Months 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, and 12. IOP, medication use and safety were assessed at each visit. Results: Sixty-six percent of subjects achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at 12 months without medication, and 81% of subjects achieved Month 12 IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with either a single medication or no medication. Mean baseline washout IOP values decreased by 10.2 mmHg or 39.7% from 26.3 (SD 3.5)mmHg to 15.7 (SD 3.7) mmHg at Month 12. Mean IOP at 12 months was 14.7 (SD 3.1) mmHg in subjects not using ocular hypotensive medications. Reduction from preoperative medication burden was achieved in 86.9% of patients, including 15.2% with reduction of one medication and 71.7% with reduction of two or more medications. Postoperative complications occurred at a low rate and resolved without persistent effects. Conclusion: In this series, implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass second generation stents in subjects with OAG resulted in IOP and medication reduction and favorable safety outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Conradt J.,TU Munich | Galluppi F.,Vision Institute | Stewart T.C.,University of Waterloo
Robotics and Autonomous Systems

Abstract We present a mobile robot with sufficient computing power to simulate up to a quarter of a million neurons in real-time. We use this computing power, combined with various on-board sensory and motor systems (including silicon retinae) to implement a novel method for learning sensorimotor competences by example. That is, by temporarily manually controlling the robot, it can gather information about what sensorimotor mapping it should be performing. We show that such a learning-by-example system is well-suited to power efficient neuron-based computation (60 W for all quarter of a million neurons), that it can learn quickly (a few tens of seconds), and that its learning generalizes well to novel situations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Jonas J.,University of Heidelberg | Paques M.,Vision Institute | Mones J.,Institute Of La Macula I Of La Retina | Glacet-Bernard A.,University Paris Est Creteil
Developments in Ophthalmology

Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) have been defined as retinal vascular disorders characterized by dilatation of the retinal veins with retinal and subretinal hemorrhages and macular edema, and/or retinal ischemia. Fluorescein angiography (FA) remains essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of RVO, allowing recognition of the diverse types of RVO, such as perfused or nonperfused, as well as detection of the different modalities in natural history. F A is the most effective method to determine the presence (or absence) of macular cystoid edema, its extension, persistence, regression, or the degree of ischemia. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) helps to quantify the changes in retinal thickness, the amount of cystoid macular edema, and supplies additional information, such as whether the accumulated fluid is located mostly within the retinal layers or additionally in the sub retinal space. SD-OCT can display the presence and integrity of the outer limiting membrane and of the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors, useful information for prognosis and a guide for treatment in the management of RVO. Laser photocoagulation in a 'grid' pattern over the area, demonstrated as leaking by FA, remains the 'reference treatment for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion', according to the recent results of the SCORE Trial. Recent case series studies and prospective randomized trials strongly suggest an antiedematous effect of intravitreal steroids and an associated improvement in vision. These studies have suggested that intravitreal steroids (triamcinolone, fluocinolone, dexamethasone in a slow-release device) and intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegabtanib) may at least temporarily reduce foveal edema and correspondingly improve visual function. Surgical treatment modalities have been reported for RVOs. The positive action of vitrectomy seems durable; the combination of surgery and intravitreal injection of steroids and/or an injection of tissue plasminogen activator could permit a more rapid and lasting action. However, strong data from randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Tsilimbaris M.K.,University of Crete | Lopez-Galvez M.I.,University of Valladolid | Gallego-Pinazo R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Margaron P.,Novartis | Lambrou G.N.,Vision Institute
Journal of Ophthalmology

Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response. © 2016 Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris et al. Source

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