Visceral and Transplantation Surgery

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Visceral and Transplantation Surgery

Germany
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Probst A.,Klinikum Augsburg | Aust D.,TU Dresden | Markl B.,Institute of Pathology | Anthuber M.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Messmann H.,Klinikum Augsburg
Endoscopy | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Endoscopic resection is the standard treatment for superficial esophageal cancer. Data on early adenocarcinoma (EAC) are widely restricted to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), whereas large studies have been published on endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). ESD has potential advantages regarding en bloc and R0 resection rates, which have been demonstrated for ESCC. However, studies have failed to confirm these advantages in EAC. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ESD in early esophageal cancer.PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 111 early esophageal cancers (87 EACs and 24 ESCCs) were resected by ESD at a German tertiary referral center. A total of 60 EACs were resected within Barrett's segments ≤ M3. Resection rates, complications, and follow-up data were recorded prospectively.RESULTS: En bloc resection rates were 95.4 % for EAC and 100 % for ESCC (P = 0.575), and R0 resection rates were 83.9 % and 91.7 %, respectively (P = 0.515). The R0 resection rate was higher in Barrett's ≤ M3 vs. > M3 (90 % vs. 70.4 %; P = 0.029). The curative resection rate was 72.4 % for EAC vs. 45.8 % for ESCC (P = 0.026). Endoluminal recurrence was observed in 2.4 % of EACs (8 % in Barrett's > M3, 0 % in Barrett's ≤ M3), and 0 % of ESCCs. Complications included strictures (11.7 %) and bleedings (0.9 %), but no perforation. Disease-specific survival was 97.7 % (EAC) and 95.8 % (ESCC), and overall survival was 96.6 % (EAC) and 66.7 % (ESCC) over a mean follow-up period of 24.3 months and 38.0 months, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: ESD was shown to be a safe resection method, achieving high R0 resection rates in both EAC and ESCC. Recurrence rates were low. To improve R0 resection within long Barrett's segments, diagnosis of the lateral extension of the lesion needs to be improved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Strassburg J.,General and Visceral Surgery | Ruppert R.,The Municipal Hospital of Munich Neuperlach | Ptok H.,Carl Thiem Klinik | Maurer C.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: This study evaluated use of circumferential resection margin status in preoperative MRI (mrCRM) as an indication for neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (nRCT) in rectal carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods: In a multicenter prospective study, nRCT was given to patients with carcinoma of the middle rectum with positive mrCRM (≤1 mm), with cT3 low rectal carcinoma, and all patients with cT4 tumors. The short-term endpoints were pathologic pCRM (≤1 mm) as a strong predictor of local recurrence rate and the quality of total mesorectal excision according to the plane of surgery. These endpoints were compared in patients with and without nRCT. Results: Of 230 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 96 (41.7%) received a long course of nRCT and 134 (58.3%) were primarily operated on. The pCRM was positive in 13 of 230 (5.7%) (primarily operated on, 2 of 134 [1.5%]; after nRCT, 11 of 96 [11%]). In 1 of 134 (0.7%) case, the mrCRM was falsely negative. Patients at participating centers varied in terms of preoperative stage but not in pCRM positivity (0%-13%, P = .340). The plane of surgery was mesorectal (good) in 209 of 230 (90.9%), intramesorectal (moderate) in 16 of 230 (7%), and the muscularis propria plane (poor) in 2.2% (5 of 230). Conclusions: Low pCRM positivity and the high quality of mesorectal excision support use of MRI-based nRCT in rectal carcinoma. nRCT was avoidable in 45% of patients with stage II and III disease without significant risk of undertreatment. Preoperative MRI thus allows identification of patients with high risk of local recurrence and use of selective nRCT. © 2011 Society of Surgical Oncology.


Radtke A.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Radtke A.,University of Kiel | Sotiropoulos G.C.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Molmenti E.P.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2010

Objective: The purpose of this study was (1) to compare 2-dimensional computed tomographic (2D-CT) and 3D-CT computer-assisted preoperative surgical planning, and (2) to define the indications for the latter method. Background: The determination of functional residual liver volumes and the imaging of intrahepatic anatomy are critical when planning complex liver resections. PATIENTS AND Methods: Prospective study of 202 consecutive patients who underwent high-risk procedures (extended right/left hepatectomies, central resections, polysegmentectomies, large atypical resections, repeated resections, and hepatectomies in the setting of abnormal liver parenchyma). Preoperative evaluation included 3D-CT computer-assisted surgical planning (3D-CASP) and conventional 2D-CT imaging. Endpoints of the study were (1) determination of resectability and (2) changes in operative strategy (resection modifications/extensions/intrahepatic vascular reconstructions). Results: Thirty-four of 202 cases were considered nonresectable on the basis of both 2D and 3D imaging results. In 56 (33%) instances, 3D-CASP either changed the 2D strategy (expansion of resection, n = 40; intrahepatic vascular reconstructions, n = 13) or provided an entirely different approach (n = 3). Eleven (5.4%) cases were considered unresectable at laparotomy on the basis of poor liver quality (n = 8) or unfeasible vascular reconstructions resulting in remnants too small to sustain physiologic function (n = 3). Significant differences between resectional 2D and functional 3D remnant liver volumes were observed in extended left hepatectomies and left trisectionectomies. Conclusions: 3D-CASP was particularly helpful in patients with unconventional resection planes and in those with central left tumors. Its main advantages were the individualized inflow/outflow virtual analyses and the accurate determination of safely perfused/drained retained liver volumes. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Spatz J.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Holl G.,Klinikum Augsburg | Sciuk J.,Klinikum Augsburg | Anthuber M.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease | Year: 2011

Purpose: Surgery for colorectal liver metastasis facilitates long-term survival, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves resectability but may also alter staging accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the efficacy of positron emission tomography (PET), PET-computed tomography (CT), CT and intraoperative ultrasound (IUS) in the detection of liver metastasis. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2010, 34 patients with resectable colorectal liver metastasis were included in this retrospective analysis. Seventeen patients had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PET or PET-CT, CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and IUS were performed in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were analysed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens served as standard reference. Results: A total of 109 liver segments were resected, of which 50 showed no metastatic involvement (45.9%). For patients without systemic chemotherapy, sensitivities for PET, CT/MRI and IUS were 92%, 64% and 100% respectively as compared with 63%, 65% and 94% for patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a segment-based analysis. For PET, standardised uptake values were decreased by 3.9 in 10 patients after chemotherapy whereas lesion diameters were similar (3.0 vs. 3.2 cm). Additional metastases were detected by IUS in seven patients resulting in a change of operative procedure in 20.6%. Conclusion: Staging accuracy of colorectal liver metastasis is influenced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For PET, decreased tumour metabolism rather than downsizing may account for a drop in sensitivity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. IUS is critical to avoid incomplete resections. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Raschzok N.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Werner W.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Sallmon H.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Billecke N.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2011

The liver has the unique capacity to regenerate after surgical resection. However, the regulation of liver regeneration is not completely understood. Recent reports indicate an essential role for small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of hepatic development, carcinogenesis, and early regeneration. We hypothesized that miRNAs are critically involved in all phases of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. We performed miRNA microarray analyses after 70% partial hepatectomy in rats under isoflurane anesthesia at different time points (0 h to 5 days) and after sham laparotomy. Putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were determined using a bioinformatic approach. Two-dimensional (2D)-PAGE proteomic analyses and protein identification were performed on specimens at 0 and 24 h after resection. The temporal dynamics of liver regeneration were characterized by 5-bromo- 2-de-oxyuridine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, IL-6, and hepatocyte growth factor. We demonstrate that miRNA expression patterns changed during liver regeneration and that these changes were most evident during the peak of DNA replication at 24 h after resection. Expression of 13 miRNAs was significantly reduced 12-48 h after resection (>25% change), out of which downreguation was confirmed in isolated hepatocytes for 6 miRNAs at 24 h, whereas three miRNAs were significantly upregulated. Proteomic analysis revealed 65 up-regulated proteins; among them, 23 represent putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. We provide a temporal miRNA expression and proteomic dataset of the regenerating rat liver, which indicates a primary function for miRNA during the peak of DNA replication. These data will assist further functional studies on the role of miRNAs during liver regeneration. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


Kaltenborn A.,Federal Armed Forces Medical Center Hanover | Schrem H.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery
Annals of Transplantation | Year: 2013

Liver transplantation is the only live-saving, curative treatment for various end-stage liver diseases, and it has excellent survival rates. Mycophenolate mofetil is widely used as co-medication for immunosuppression after liver transplantation, especially to allow a sparing effect on calcineurin-inhibitors, thus reducing their numerous adverse effects. It improves both graft and patient survival. The properties of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, are diverse: inhibition of de novo purine synthesis and selective lymphocyte inhibition, anti-tumoral, antiviral, anti-angioneoplastic, and vasculoprotective mechanisms are described and summarized in this review. The most common adverse effects of mycophenolate mofetil are gastrointestinal complaints such as diarrhea, which often lead to dose-reduction or withdrawal of mycophenolate mofetil. A newer, enteric-coated formulation is available, which is meant to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse effects. Mycophenolate mofetil does not relevantly interact with other common drugs. The question of whether therapeutic drug monitoring allows optimized dosing strategies cannot be satisfyingly answered yet. The optimal partner-immunosuppressant seems to be tacrolimus, especially in low doses. This tutorial review provides an overview of recent studies exploring the role of mycophenolate mofetil in liver transplantation with regards to its development, mechanism of action, and actual controversies such as therapeutic drug monitoring or de novo malignancy after transplantation. © Ann Transplant.


Eisele R.M.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Chopra S.S.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Lock J.F.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Glanemann M.,Saarland University
Technology and Health Care | Year: 2013

Background: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgical treatment is a common problem. It can be treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or repeated hepatic resection (HR). This report compares both in a retrospective, single-institution database. Patients and Methods: A prospectively collected database was retrospectively analyzed. RFA was performed under ultrasound control using two different monopolar devices. All kinds of access were used: open surgical (n=10), percutaneous (n=13) and laparoscopic (n=4). HR was performed using an ultrasound aspiration device. Indication for a particular treatment was allocated on a case-by-case basis; the final decision was often made intraoperatively. Results: Survival after RFA (median 40 months) was similar compared to that after HR (48 months, p=0.641, logRank-test). Tumor-free survival was markedly impaired after RFA (15 vs. 29 months). This difference was however not significant (p=0.07, logRank-test). Both groups were different regarding occurrence of cirrhosis, maximal tumor size, time after initial diagnosis and duration of the procedure. Conclusion: In this non-randomized retrospective trial, survival and disease-free survival was not significantly different when compared between patients treated by RFA and HR. There was however a tendency towards a longer tumor-free survival in the resected patients. © 2013-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Neuhaus P.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Thelen A.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Jonas S.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Puhl G.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose. Long-term results after liver resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma are still not satisfactory. Previously, we described a survival advantage of patients who undergo combined right trisectionectomy and portal vein resection, a procedure termed "hilar en bloc resection." The present study was conducted to analyze its oncological effectiveness compared to conventional hepatectomy. Patients. During hilar en bloc resection, the extrahepatic bile ducts were resected en bloc with the portal vein bifurcation, the right hepatic artery, and liver segments 1 and 4 to 8. With this "no-touch" technique, preparation of the hilar vessels in the vicinity of the tumor was avoided. The long-term outcome of 50 consecutive patients who underwent curative (R0) hilar en bloc resection between 1990 and 2004 was compared to that of 50 consecutive patients who received curative conventional major hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (perioperative deaths excluded). Results. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after hilar en bloc resection were 87%, 70%, and 58%, respectively, which was significantly higher than after conventional major hepatectomy. In the latter group, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 79%, 40%, and 29%, respectively (P = 0.021). Tumor characteristics were comparable in both groups. A high number of pT3 and pT4 tumors and patients with positive regional lymph nodes were present in both groups. Multivariate analysis identified hilar en bloc resection as an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival (P = 0.036). Conclusions. In patients with central bile duct carcinomas, hilar en bloc resection is oncologically superior to conventional major hepatectomy, providing a chance of longterm survival even in advanced tumors. © Society of Surgical Oncology 2011.


Eurich D.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Eurich D.,RWTH Aachen
Transplantation | Year: 2012

Background: The development of liver graft disease is partially determined by individual genetic background. Interleukin 28B (IL28B) is strongly suspected to be involved in susceptibility for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, inflammation, and antiviral treatment response before and after liver transplantation (LT). Currently, the role of IL28B polymorphism (rs12979860) in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear, and only limited data are available on the course of HCV recurrence. Methods: One hundred sixty-seven HCV-positive patients after LT were genotyped for IL28B (C→T; rs12979860). Sixty-one patients with histologically confirmed HCC in the explanted liver were compared with 106 patients without HCC regarding IL28B genotypes. Among patients with HCC, IL28B genotypes were correlated with tumor histology and pretransplant α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Furthermore, the role of IL28B polymorphism was evaluated regarding interferon-based treatment success and fibrosis progression after LT. Results: The prevalence of HCC in explanted livers was significantly higher among patients with TT genotype, suggesting a protective role of the C allele in HCC development (P=0.041). Median AFP level was closely to significance higher in the presence of T allele (P=0.052). Significant differences in IL28B genotype distribution were detected between AFP-negative and AFP-positive HCCs (<15 μg/L vs. >15 μg/L; P=0.008). Although no impact could be observed regarding acute cellular rejection (P=0.940), T allele was significantly associated with antiviral therapy failure (P=0.028) and faster development of advanced fibrosis (P=0.017) after LT. Conclusion: IL28B polymorphism seems to be involved in the development of HCV-induced HCC and in the course of HCV recurrence after LT. T allele may be regarded as a genetic risk factor for HCV-related carcinogenesis, posttransplant fibrosis progression, and antiviral therapy failure. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Liese J.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Kohler S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Moench C.,Visceral and Transplantation Surgery | Bechstein W.O.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Ulrich F.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery | Year: 2013

Introduction: Total splenectomy leads to an immunocompromised state, with an increased lifetime risk of infection. The lifetime risk of developing overwhelming postsplenectomy infection is 5 %, with a mortality rate of approximately 50 %. In addition to vaccination and antibiotic prophylaxis, partial splenectomy is believed to improve patient safety. Methods: We performed partial splenectomy in seven patients using a radiofrequency (RF) technique with Habib® needles. In seven patients, an open access partial splenectomy was performed. In three patients, a partial splenectomy was performed simultaneously with intraabdominal tumour resection. In two patients, the upper pole of the spleen was removed due to tumours of the spleen. In one patient, a large symptomatic splenic cyst was resected and in another patient, a partial splenectomy was performed due to trauma. RF was applied using Habib® needles (AngioDynamics, Manchester, GA, 31816, USA). Results: The partial splenectomy procedures were easy and safe in all seven patients. The RF application with the Habib® needles led to primary haemostasis. The blood loss was less than 50 ml in all cases. After a minimum follow-up of 1 year, there were no cases of infections or other adverse events related to the previous partial splenectomy. Conclusion: In our experience, partial splenectomy with Habib® needles is easy to perform and safe for the patient. Thus, radiofrequency resection is a good alternative to total splenectomy in many patients and reduces the risk of postsplenectomy infections. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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