Visceral and Transplant Surgery

Berlin, Germany

Visceral and Transplant Surgery

Berlin, Germany
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Van Keimpema L.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Nevens F.,University Hospital euven | Adam R.,Center Hepato biliaire | Porte R.J.,University of Groningen | And 5 more authors.
Transplant International | Year: 2011

Summary Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR) database to extract demographics and outcomes of 58 PCLD patients. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for survival rates. Severe abdominal pain (75%) was the most prominent symptom, while portal hypertension (35%) was the most common complication in PCLD. The explantation of the polycystic liver was extremely difficult in 38% of patients, because of presence of adhesions from prior therapy (17%). Karnofsky score following LT was 90%. The 1- and 5-year graft survival rate was 94.3% and 87.5%, while patient survival rate was 94.8% and 92.3%, respectively. Survival rates after LT for PCLD are good. © 2011 The Authors.

Di Dalmazi G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kisker C.,University of Würzburg | Calebiro D.,University of Würzburg | Arnaldi G.,University Hospital | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Somatic mutations in PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA), have been recently found in a high proportion of sporadic adenomas associated with Cushing's syndrome. The aim was to analyze the PRKACA mutation in a large cohort of patients with adrenocortical masses.Methods: Samples from nine European centerswere included (Germany, n = 4; Italy, n = 4; France, n = 1). Samples were drawn from 149 patients with nonsecreting adenomas (n = 32 + 2 peritumoral), subclinical hypercortisolism (n = 36), Cushing's syndrome (n = 64 + 2 peritumoral), androgen-producing tumors (n = 4), adrenocortical carcinomas (n = 5 + 2 peritumoral), and primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (n = 8). Blood samples were available from patients with nonsecreting adenomas (n = 15), subclinical hypercortisolism (n = 10), and Cushing's syndrome (n = 35). Clinical and hormonal data were collected. DNA amplification by PCR of exons 6 and 7 of the PRKACA gene and direct sequencing were performed.Results: PRKACA heterozygous mutations were found in 22/64 samples of Cushing's syndrome patients (34%). No mutations were found in peritumoral tissue and blood samples or in other tumors examined. The c.617A>C (p.Leu206Arg) occurred in 18/22 patients. Furthermore, two novel mutations were identified: c.600-601insGTG/p.Cys200-Gly201insVal in three patients and c.639C>G+c.638-640insATTATCCTGAGG/p.Ser213Arg + p.Leu212-Lys214insIle-Ile-Leu-Arg) in one. All the mutations involved a region implicated in interaction between PKA regulatory and catalytic subunits. Patients with somatic PRKACA mutations showed higher levels of cortisol after dexamethasone test and a smaller adenoma size, compared with nonmutated subjects.Conclusions: These data confirm and extend previous observations that somatic PRKACA mutations are specific for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.

PubMed | Johns Hopkins University, Visceral and Transplant Surgery and Innsbruck Medical University
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2016

In vivo animal model systems, and in particular mouse models, have evolved into powerful and versatile scientific tools indispensable to basic and translational research in the field of transplantation medicine. A vast array of reagents is available exclusively in this setting, including mono- and polyclonal antibodies for both diagnostic and interventional applications. In addition, a vast number of genotyped, inbred, transgenic, and knock out strains allow detailed investigation of the individual contributions of humoral and cellular components to the complex interplay of an immune response and make the mouse the gold standard for immunological research. Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) delineates a novel field of transplantation using allografts to replace like with like in patients suffering traumatic or congenital tissue loss. This surgical methodological protocol shows the use of a non-suture cuff technique for super-microvascular anastomosis in an orthotopic mouse hind limb transplantation model. The model specifically allows for comparison between established paradigms in solid organ transplantation with a novel form of transplants consisting of various different tissue components. Uniquely, this model allows for the transplantation of a viable vascularized bone marrow compartment and niche that have the potential to exert a beneficial effect on the balance of immune acceptance and rejection. This technique provides a tool to investigate alloantigen recognition and allograft rejection and acceptance, as well as enables the pursuit of functional nerve regeneration studies to further advance this novel field of transplantation.

Ollinger R.,Innsbruck Medical University | Mihaljevic A.L.,TU Munich | Schuhmacher C.,TU Munich | Bektas H.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | And 7 more authors.
HPB | Year: 2013

Background: Bleeding during hepatic surgery is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality. The Veriset™ haemostatic patch is a topical haemostat comprised of an absorbable backing made of oxidized cellulose and self-adhesive hydrogel components. It is designed to achieve haemostasis quickly and adhere to tissues without fixation. Methods: A prospective, randomized, multicentre, single-blinded study (n = 50) was performed to compare the use of a Veriset™ haemostatic patch with a fibrin sealant patch (TachoSil®) (control) in the management of diffuse bleeding after hepatic surgery. Patients were randomized following the confirmation of diffuse bleeding requiring the use of a topical haemostat. Time to haemostasis was assessed at preset intervals until haemostasis was achieved. Results: Both groups were similar in comorbidities and procedural techniques. The median time to haemostasis in the group using the Veriset™ haemostatic patch was 1.0 min compared with 3.0 min in the control group (P 0.001; 3-min minimum application time for the control patch). This result was independent of bleeding severity and surface area. Both products had similar safety profiles and no statistical differences were observed in the occurrence of adverse or device-related events. Conclusions: Regardless of bleeding severity or surface area, the Veriset™ haemostatic patch achieved haemostasis in this setting significantly faster than the control device in patients undergoing hepatic resection. It was safe and easy to handle in open hepatic surgery. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

Rahbari N.N.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Elbers H.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Koch M.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Vogler P.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: Various devices have been developed to facilitate liver transection and reduce blood loss in liver resections. None of these has proven superiority compared with the classical clamp-crushing technique. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness and safety of stapler transection with that of clamp-crushing during open liver resection. Methods: Patients admitted for elective open liver resection between January 2010 and October 2011 were assigned randomly to stapler transection or the clamp-crushing technique. The primary endpoint was the total amount of intraoperative blood loss. Secondary endpoints included transection time, duration of operation, complication rates and resection margins. Results: A total of 130 patients were enrolled, 65 to clamp-crushing and 65 to stapler transection. There was no difference between groups in total intraoperative blood loss: median (i.q.r.) 1050 (525-1650) versus 925 (450-1425) ml respectively (P = 0·279). The difference in total intraoperative blood loss normalized to the transection surface area was not statistically significant (P = 0·092). Blood loss during parenchymal transection was significantly lower in the stapler transection group (P = 0·002), as were the parenchymal transection time (mean(s.d.) 30(21) versus 9(7) min for clamp-crushing and stapler transection groups respectively; P < 0·001) and total duration of operation (mean(s.d.) 221(86) versus 190(85) min; P = 0·047). There were no significant differences in postoperative morbidity (P = 0·863) or mortality (P = 0·684) between groups. Conclusion: Stapler transection is a safe technique but does not reduce intraoperative blood loss in elective liver resection compared with the clamp-crushing technique. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd.

Rayes N.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Pilarski T.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Stockmann M.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Bengmark S.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Beneficial Microbes | Year: 2012

Liver regeneration is a prerequisite for extended liver surgery. Several studies have shown that the bacterial gut flora is able to modulate liver function. Previously we observed that synbiotics could partly reverse the impaired mitosis rate of hepatocytes in a rat model of synchronous liver resection and colon anastomosis. The effect of synbiotics on liver function after hepatic resection has not been analysed yet. A prospective randomised double-blind pilot trial was undertaken in 19 patients scheduled for right hepatectomy. All patients received enteral nutrition immediately post-operatively. Comparison was made between a group receiving a combination of four probiotics and four fibres and a placebo group receiving the fibres only starting the day before surgery and continuing for 10 days. Primary study endpoint was the liver function capacity measured by 13C-methacetin breath test and indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate. Portal vein flow, liver volumetry, laboratory parameters for liver function, length of hospital stay, post-operative complications and side effects of synbiotic therapy were recorded. Liver function capacity was comparable in both groups. Complications had a negative impact on liver function. Because complications were more severe in the verum group, a sub-analysis was performed. In case of an uncomplicated course, liver function capacity was better in the patients with synbiotics. No severe side effects occurred. Synbiotics might be able to increase liver function capacity in patients after liver resection, but patient numbers were too small and the clinical courses too heterogeneous to draw any definite conclusions. © 2012 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Spatz H.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Anthuber M.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery
European Surgery - Acta Chirurgica Austriaca | Year: 2010

Background: Colon cancer is a leading cause of death in western countries and accounts for 639,000 cancer-related deaths worldwide. Surgical tumour clearance is the key treatment option and represents a classic field of action for the general and visceral surgeon. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and DIMDI were searched for articles referring to state of the art surgical management of colon cancer complemented by our own clinical experience to create an overview of up-to-date treatment options and theoretical background knowledge. Results: The extent of bowel and mesenteric resection is dictated by the vascular supply and corresponding lymphatic drainage, careful attention to anatomical-embryological tissue planes and provision of adequate blood supply at the resection margins. Accordingly, optimal surgical clearance results in low local recurrence rates and translates into improved survival. In this context, the open and laparoscopic approaches yield similar results in terms of long-term outcome and oncological radicality. Radical resection of metastases results in long-term survival in selected patients. Fast Track rehabilitation facilitates attenuation of perioperative stress response and enhances recovery. Conclusion: Resectability and surgical technique are pivotal for long-term survival in all stages of colon cancer. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Eurich D.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Bahra M.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Boas-Knoop S.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Lock J.F.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | And 4 more authors.
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2011

Re-infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important development after liver transplantation (LT); it can lead to graft fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) polymorphisms in the development of HCV-related graft disease by evaluating protocol liver biopsies. A total of 192 patients with a recurrence of HCV infection after LT were genotyped for TGF-β1 codon 10 (C→T) and codon 25 (G→C) using the polymerase chain reaction. Histological evaluation of 614 protocol liver biopsies obtained from these patients was undertaken using the classification of Desmet and Scheuer to stage the degree of fibrosis. Mild stages of fibrosis (0-2) were compared to advanced stages of fibrosis (3-4) that developed during the period of infection with the virus. Correlations between the prevalence of TGF-β1 genotypes and the different degrees of fibrosis that developed were determined. No statistically significant differences were found for genotype distributions (codons 10 and 25) with respect to recipient age, donor sex, occurrence of acute cellular rejection, and response to antiviral therapy. However, the C allele at codon 25 was significantly less frequent in the group with advanced fibrosis (P = 0.001). Furthermore, a positive association was found between progression of fibrosis and male recipient sex (P = 0.024), donor age (P = 0.041), and viral genotype 1b (P = 0.002). In conclusion, this study, in which the evolution of hepatic fibrosis was assessed histologically in a large cohort of patients with HCV re-infection after LT, has demonstrated that the C allele at codon 25 of the TGF-β1 gene is a marker for the development of graft fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Kleine M.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Schrem H.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Vondran F.W.R.,Visceral and Transplant Surgery | Krech T.,Hannover Medical School | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Pancreatic endocrine tumours are often diagnosed at an advanced stage with hepatic metastasis. This study investigated whether extended resections for advanced malignant pancreatic endocrine tumours influenced disease-free and disease-specific survival. Methods: Patients who had curative resection of pancreatic endocrine tumours were analysed retrospectively for disease-free and disease-specific survival, with a focus on the role of extended surgical resection. Results: Forty-one patients were included in the analysis, 13 of whom underwent extended surgical resection in addition to pancreatic resection. This included partial liver resection in nine patients, portal vein resection in three, partial gastric resection in five and liver transplantation in three patients. There were no deaths in hospital or within 30 days. Median follow-up was 40 (range 2-239) months. Thirty-five, 24 and 13 patients survived more than 1, 3 and 5 years respectively. Patients who underwent extended resection had similar disease-specific survival to those who had pancreatic resection alone (hazard ratio (HR) 1·50, 95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0·35 to 6·35; P = 0·581) but with a higher frequency of complications (odds ratio (OR) 4·28, 95 per cent c.i. 1·04 to 17·62; P = 0·044). Among patients with liver metastases, the mortality rate was higher in those in whom liver resection was not possible than in patients who had liver resection (HR 9·24, 1·00 to 85·18; P = 0·049). Patients who had liver resection had similar disease-specific survival to those without liver metastases (HR 0·84, 0·09 to 7·57; P = 0·877). Conclusion: Extended surgical resection for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumours is feasible with encouraging disease-specific survival. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

PubMed | Visceral and Transplant Surgery
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Updates in surgery | Year: 2016

Biliary leakage is a serious complication after liver resection and represents the major cause of post-operative morbidity. In spite of already identified risk factors, little is known about the role of intra-biliary pressure following liver surgery in the development of biliary leakage. Biliary decompression may have a positive impact and reduce the incidence of biliary leakage at the parenchymal resection site. 397 patients undergoing liver resection without bilioenteric anastomosis were included in the retrospective analysis of the risk factors for the development of biliary leakage focusing on the intra-operative reduction of the biliary pressure by T-tube and liver histology. Among 397 analyzed patients after parenchymal resection, biliary leakage occurred in 39 cases (9.8%). The extent of parenchymal resection was not associated with the total occurrence of biliary leak (p=0.626). Lower incidence of biliary leakage from the resection surface was significantly associated with the use of T-tube (4.9 vs. 13.2%; p=0.006). In the subgroup analysis, insertion of a T-tube was not associated with a reduction of biliary leakage after anatomical hemihepatectomies (p=0.103) and extraanatomical liver resection (p=0.676). However, a high statistical significance could be detected in patients with extended hemihepatectomies (58.3 vs. 3.8%; p<0.001). Once biliary leak occurred without T-tube, median hospitalization duration significantly increased compared to patients with biliary decompression and without biliary leak (p<0.001). The results of our retrospective data analysis suggest a significant beneficial impact of the T-tube on the development of biliary leakage in patients undergoing extended liver surgery.

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