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Peterson N.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Anderson T.K.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | Yoshino T.P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Fucosylated glycans of the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni play key roles in its development and immunobiology. In the present study we used a genome-wide homology-based bioinformatics approach to search for genes that contribute to fucosylated glycan expression in S. mansoni, specifically the α2-, α3-, and α6-fucosyltransferases (FucTs), which transfer L-fucose from a GDP-L-fucose donor to an oligosaccharide acceptor. We identified and in silico characterized several novel schistosome FucT homologs, including six α3-FucTs and six α6-FucTs, as well as two protein O-FucTs that catalyze the unrelated transfer of L-fucose to serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor- and thrombospondin-type repeats. No α2-FucTs were observed. Primary sequence analyses identified key conserved FucT motifs as well as characteristic transmembrane domains, consistent with their putative roles as fucosyltransferases. Most genes exhibit alternative splicing, with multiple transcript variants generated. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that schistosome α3- and α6-FucTs form monophyletic clades within their respective gene families, suggesting multiple gene duplications following the separation of the schistosome lineage from the main evolutionary tree. Quantitative decreases in steady-state transcript levels of some FucTs during early larval development suggest a possible mechanism for differential expression of fucosylated glycans in schistosomes. This study systematically identifies the complete repertoire of FucT homologs in S. mansoni and provides fundamental information regarding their genomic organization, genetic variation, developmental expression, and evolutionary history. © 2013 Peterson et al. Source

Zhang H.B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang H.B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu Y.J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

In members of the Bocavirus genus, that contain three open reading frames (ORFs) of the Parvovirinae subfamily, porcine bocaviruses (PoBoVs) exhibit the most genetic diversity. Based on the ORF2-encoded viral protein (VP1) classification, the six reported porcine bocaviruses were grouped into four species: PoBoV1 (porcine boca-like virus or PBoLV), PoBoV2 (porcine parvovirus 4 or PPV4), PoBoV3 (PBoV1/PBoV2) and PoBoV4 (6V/7V), with PoBoV3 and PoBoV4 each having two genotype viruses. All four PoBoV species were detected in the 166 samples collected in 2010 from swine herds located in ten provinces of China. The detection rates for PoBoV1-4 were 28·9%, 6·6%, 19·3% and 39·7%, respectively. The co-infection combinations involving these six porcine bocaviruses in the collected samples were very complex. Furthermore, mixed infections with viruses from other families (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, classic swine fever virus and porcine circovirus type 2) were also detected. © Cambridge University Press 2011. Source

Huang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhai S.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhai S.-L.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Cheung A.K.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2010

To determine whether the novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) recently reported in America is prevalent in China, a set of specific primers was designed and used for molecular survey of PPV4 among the clinical samples collected from various provinces of China between 2006 and 2010. The results showed that PPV4 is present in Chinese swine herds at a rate of 2.09% (12/573) among the clinical samples examined and 0.76% (1/132) among the samples taken from healthy animals. We also noted that PPV4 was not detected in samples taken prior to 2009. Analysis of the coding sequences showed that the Chinese and American PPV4 genome sequences are closely related with greater than 99% nucleotide sequence identity. Similar to a previous study, viral genomes in head-to-tail configuration of various lengths of the non-coding region were detected. Our findings confirmed that PPV4 is a unique recently discovered virus in pigs. Phylogenetically, PPV4 is most closely related to bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2, which is not a Bocavirus and is not assigned to any Parvovirinae genus) and shares limited ORF1 (33.6%) and ORF2 (24.5%) amino acid identity. With respect to genome structure and organization, PPV4 encodes an ORF3 in the middle of the viral genome that resembles the Bocavirus genus. However, the PPV4 ORF3 encoded protein shares minimal amino acid identity with the ORF3 encoded proteins of the Bocavirus genus. © 2010 Huang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Nicholson T.L.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | Nicholson T.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kukielka D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vincent A.L.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Several factors have recently converged, elevating the need for highly parallel diagnostic platforms that have the ability to detect many known, novel, and emerging pathogenic agents simultaneously. Panviral DNA microarrays represent the most robust approach for massively parallel viral surveillance and detection. The Virochip is a panviral DNA microarray that is capable of detecting all known viruses, as well as novel viruses related to known viral families, in a single assay and has been used to successfully identify known and novel viral agents in clinical human specimens. However, the usefulness and the sensitivity of the Virochip platform have not been tested on a set of clinical veterinary specimens with the high degree of genetic variance that is frequently observed with swine virus field isolates. In this report, we investigate the utility and sensitivity of the Virochip to positively detect swine viruses in both cell culture-derived samples and clinical swine samples. The Virochip successfully detected porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in serum containing 6.10 × 102 viral copies per microliter and influenza A virus in lung lavage fluid containing 2.08 × 106 viral copies per microliter. The Virochip also successfully detected porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in serum containing 2.50 × 108 viral copies per microliter and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) in turbinate tissue homogenate. Collectively, the data in this report demonstrate that the Virochip can successfully detect pathogenic viruses frequently found in swine in a variety of solid and liquid specimens, such as turbinate tissue homogenate and lung lavage fluid, as well as antemortem samples, such as serum. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Butler J.E.,University of Iowa | Lager K.M.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | Golde W.,Foreign Animal Disease Unit | Faaberg K.S.,Virus and Prion Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Immunologic Research | Year: 2014

Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the USA with comparative losses in most other countries. The causative agent is a single-stranded, positive-sense enveloped arterivirus (PRRSV) that infects macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Despite the discovery of PRRSV in 1991 and the publication of >2,000 articles, the control of PRRS is problematic. Despite the large volume of literature on this disease, the cellular and molecular mechanisms describing how PRRSV dysregulates the host immune system are poorly understood. We know that PRRSV suppresses innate immunity and causes abnormal B cell proliferation and repertoire development, often lymphopenia and thymic atrophy. The PRRSV genome is highly diverse, rapidly evolving but amenable to the generation of many mutants and chimeric viruses for experimental studies. PRRSV only replicates in swine which adds to the experimental difficulty since no inbred well-defined animal models are available. In this article, we summarize current knowledge and apply it toward developing a series of provocative and testable hypotheses to explain how PRRSV immunomodulates the porcine immune system with the goal of adding new perspectives on this disease. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

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