Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit

Ames, IA, United States

Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit

Ames, IA, United States
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Pena L.,University of Maryland College Park | Vincent A.L.,Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Loving C.L.,Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Henningson J.N.,Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2012

PB1-F2 is an 87- to 90-amino-acid-long protein expressed by certain influenza A viruses. Previous studies have shown that PB1-F2 contributes to virulence in the mouse model; however, its role in natural hosts-pigs, humans, or birds-remains largely unknown. Outbreaks of domestic pigs infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) have been detected worldwide. Unlike previous pandemic strains, pH1N1 viruses do not encode a functional PB1-F2 due to the presence of three stop codons resulting in premature truncation after codon 11. However, pH1N1s have the potential to acquire the full-length form of PB1-F2 through mutation or reassortment. In this study, we assessed whether restoring the full-length PB1-F2 open reading frame (ORF) in the pH1N1 background would have an effect on virus replication and virulence in pigs. Restoring the PB1-F2 ORF resulted in upregulation of viral polymerase activity at early time points in vitro and enhanced virus yields in porcine respiratory explants and in the lungs of infected pigs. There was an increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with isogenic virus expressing PB1-F2 compared to the wild-type (WT) pH1N1. The extent of microscopic pneumonia correlated with increased pulmonary levels of alpha interferon and interleukin-1β in pigs infected with pH1N1 encoding a functional PB1-F2 but only early in the infection. Together, our results indicate that PB1-F2 in the context of pH1N1 moderately modulates viral replication, lung histopathology, and local cytokine response in pigs. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Bose S.,Iowa State University | Bose S.,Columbia University | Schonenbrucher H.,Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Schonenbrucher H.,Merck KGaA | And 7 more authors.
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2013

Recently, we have proposed that the fluorescence spectra of sheep retina can be well correlated with the presence or absence of scrapie. Scrapie is the most widespread TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) affecting sheep and goats worldwide. Mice eyes have been previously reported as a model system to study age-related accumulation of lipofuscin, which has been investigated by monitoring the increasing fluorescence with age covering its entire life span. The current work aims at developing mice retina as a convenient model system to diagnose scrapie and other fatal TSE diseases in animals such as sheep and cows. The objective of the research reported here was to determine whether the spectral features are conserved between two different species namely mice and sheep, and whether an appropriate small animal model system could be identified for diagnosis of scrapie based on the fluorescence intensity in retina. The results were consistent with the previous reports on fluorescence studies of healthy and scrapie-infected retina of sheep. The fluorescence from the retinas of scrapie-infected sheep was significantly more intense and showed more heterogeneity than that from the retinas of uninfected mice. Although the structural characteristics of fluorescence spectra of scrapie-infected sheep and mice eyes are slightly different, more importantly, murine retinas reflect the enhancement of fluorescence intensity upon infecting the mice with scrapie, which is consistent with the observations in sheep eyes. © 2013 The Authors Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.


Ma W.,Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Ma W.,Kansas State University | Ma W.,Iowa State University | Vincent A.L.,Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | And 7 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2010

A highly virulent H1N1 influenza A virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07), which caused approximately 10% mortality in finishing pigs, was isolated from herds in the Midwestern United States. Molecular and phylogenic analysis revealed this swine isolate was a triple reassortant virus, similar to an H1N1 virus that infected humans and pigs at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. A pig challenge model was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission capacity of the KS07 virus. The results confirmed that the KS07 virus is highly virulent in pigs and easily transmitted to sentinel animals. The KS07 virus failed to cross-react with a panel of H1-specific swine sera. Interestingly, the KS07 virus shed for a prolonged period up to 7 days in infected pigs, indicating that this virus can spread efficiently between animals. The highly virulent H1N1 swine influenza virus is further evidence of reassortment among avian, human and swine influenza viruses and justifies the need for continued surveillance of influenza viruses in swine. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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